S&A— Sampling and
Analysis. Surveillance and Analysis
SAB— Science Advisory Board
SAC— Suspended and Cancelled Pesticides
SAEWG— Standing Air Emissions Work Group
SAIP— Systems Acquisition and Implementation
SAMI— Southern Appalachian Mountains
SAMWG— Standing Air Monitoring Work
SANE— Sulfur and Nitrogen Emissions
SANSS— Structure and Nomenclature Search
SAP— Scientific Advisory Panel
SAR— Start Action Request. Structural
Activity Relationship (of a qualitative assessment)
SARA— Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act of 1986
SAROAD— Storage and Retrieval Of Aerometric
SAS— Special Analytical Service. Statistical
SASS— Source Assessment Sampling System
SAV— Submerged Aquatic Vegetation
SBC— Single Breath Cannister
SC— Sierra Club
SCAP— Superfund Consolidated Accomplishments
SCBA— Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
SCC— Source Classification Code
SCD/SWDC— Soil or Soil and Water Conservation
SCFM— Standard Cubic Feet Per Minute
SCLDF— Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund
SCR— Selective Catalytic Reduction
SCRAM— State Consolidated RCRA Authorization
SCRC— Superfund Community Relations
SCS— Supplementary Control Strategy/System
SCSA— Soil Conservation Society of America
SCSP— Storm and Combined Sewer Program
SCW— Supercritical Water Oxidation
SDC— Systems Decision Plan
SDWA— Safe Drinking Water Act
SDWIS— Safe Drinking Water Information
SBS— Sick Building Syndrome
SEA— State Enforcement Agreement
SEA— State/EPA Agreement
SEAM— Surface, Environment, and Mining
SEAS— Strategic Environmental Assessment
SEDS— State Energy Data System
SEGIP— State Environmental Goals and
SEIA— Socioeconomic Impact Analysis
SEM— Standard Error of the Means
SEP— Standard Evaluation Procedures
SEP— Supplementary Environmental Project
SEPWC— Senate Environment and Public
SERC— State Emergency Planning Commission
SES— Secondary Emissions Standard
SETAC— Society for Environmental Toxicology
SETS— Site Enforcement Tracking System
SF— Standard Form. Superfund
SFA— Spectral Flame Analyzers
SFDS— Sanitary Facility Data System
SFFAS— Superfund Financial Assessment
SFIREG— State FIFRA Issues Research
and Evaluation Group
SFS— State Funding Study
SHORTZ— Short Term Terrain Model
SHWL— Seasonal High Water Level
SI— International System of Units. Site
Inspection. Surveillance Index. Spark Ignition
SIC— Standard Industrial Classification
SICEA— Steel Industry Compliance Extension
SIMS— Secondary Ion-Mass Spectrometry
SIP— State Implementation Plan
SITE— Superfund Innovative Technology
SLAMS— State/Local Air Monitoring Station
SLN— Special Local Need
SLSM— Simple Line Source Model
SMART— Simple Maintenance of ARTS
SMCL— Secondary Maximum Contaminant
SMCRA— Surface Mining Control and Reclamation
SME— Subject Matter Expert
SMO— Sample Management Office
SMOA— Superfund Memorandum of Agreement
SMP— State Management Plan
SMR— Standardized Mortality Ratio
SMSA— Standard Metropolitan Statistical
SNA— System Network Architecture
SNAAQS— Secondary National Ambient Air
SNAP— Significant New Alternatives Project;
Significant Noncompliance Action Program
SNARL— Suggested No Adverse Response
SNC— Significant Noncompliers
SNUR— Significant New Use Rule
SO— Sulfur Dioxide
SOC— Synthetic Organic Chemicals
SOCMI— Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing
SOFC— Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
SOTDAT— Source Test Data
SOW— Scope Of Work
SPAR— Status of Permit Application Report
SPCC— Spill Prevention, Containment,
SPE— Secondary Particulate Emissions
SPF— Structured Programming Facility
SPI— Strategic Planning Initiative
SPLMD— Soil-pore Liquid Monitoring Device
SPMS— Strategic Planning and Management
System; Special Purpose Monitoring Stations
SPOC— Single Point Of Contact
SPS— State Permit System
SPSS— Statistical Package for the Social
SPUR— Software Package for Unique Reports
SQBE— Small Quantity Burner Exemption
SQG— Small Quantity Generator
SR— Special Review
SRAP— Superfund Remedial Accomplishment
SRC— Solvent-Refined Coal
SRF— State Revolving Fund
SRM— Standard Reference Method
SRP— Special Review Procedure
SRR— Second Round Review. Submission
SRTS— Service Request Tracking System
SS— Settleable Solids. Superfund Surcharge.
SSA— Sole Source Aquifer
SSAC— Soil Site Assimilated Capacity
SSC— State Superfund Contracts
SSD— Standards Support Document
SSEIS— Standard Support and Environmental
Impact Statement;. Stationary Source Emissions
and Inventory System.
SSI— Size Selective Inlet
SSMS— Spark Source Mass Spectrometry
SSO— Sanitary Sewer Overflow; Source
SSRP— Source Reduction Review Project
SSTS— Section Seven Tracking System
SSURO— Stop Sale, Use and Removal Order
STALAPCO— State and Local Air-Pollution
STAPPA— State and Territorial Air Pollution
STAR— Stability Wind Rose. State Acid
STARS— Strategic Targeted Activities
for Results System
STEL— Short Term Exposure Limit
STEM— Scanning Transmission-Electron
STN— Scientific and Technical Information
STORET— Storage and Retrieval of Water-Related
STP— Sewage Treatment Plant. Standard
Temperature and Pressure
STTF— Small Town Task Force (EPA)
SUP— Standard Unit of Processing
SURE— Sulfate Regional Experiment Program
SV— Sampling Visit; Significant Violater
SW— Slow Wave
SWAP— Source Water Assessment Program
SWARF— Waste from Metal Grinding Process
SWC— Settlement With Conditions
SWDA— Solid Waste Disposal Act
SWIE— Southern Waste Information Exchange
SWMU— Solid Waste Management Unit
SWPA— Source Water Protection Area
SWQPPP— Source Water Quality Protection
SWTR— Surface Water Treatment Rule
SYSOP— Systems Operator
Sacrifical Anode— An
easily corroded material deliberately installed
in a pipe or intake to give it up (sacrifice
it) to corrosion while the rest of the water
supply facility remains relatively corrosion-free.
Safe— Condition of exposure
under which there is a practical certainty
that no harm will result to exposed individuals.
Safe Water— Water that
does not contain harmful bacteria, toxic materials,
or chemicals, and is considered safe for drinking
even if it may have taste, odor, color, and
certain mineral problems.
Safe Yield— The annual
amount of water that can be taken from a source
of supply over a period of years without depleting
that source beyond its ability to be replenished
naturally in “wet years.”
Safener— A chemical added
to a pesticide to keep it from injuring plants.
Salinity— The percentage
of salt in water.
Salt Water Intrusion—
The invasion of fresh surface or ground water
by salt water. If it comes from the ocean
it may be called sea water intrusion.
Salts— Minerals that
water picks up as it passes through the air,
over and under the ground, or from households
Salvage— The utilization
of waste materials.
Sampling Frequency— The
interval between the collection of successive
Sanctions— Actions taken
by the federal government for failure to provide
or implement a State Implementation Plan (SIP).
Such action may include withholding of highway
funds and a ban on construction of new sources
of potential pollution.
Sand Filters— Devices
that remove some suspended solids from sewage.
Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes
filtering through the sand so that cleaner
water drains from the bed.
Sanitary Sewers— Underground
pipes that carry off only domestic or industrial
waste, not storm water.
Sanitary Survey— An on-site
review of the water sources, facilities, equipment,
operation and maintenance of a public water
system to evaluate the adequacy of those elements
for producing and distributing safe drinking
Sanitary Water (Also known
as gray water)— Water discharged from
sinks, showers, kitchens, or other non-industrial
operations, but not from commodes.
Sanitation— Control of
physical factors in the human environment
that could harm development, health, or survival.
Saprolite— A soft, clay-rich,
thoroughly decomposed rock formed in place
by chemical weathering of igneous or metamorphic
rock. Forms in humid, tropical, or subtropical
living on dead or decaying organic matter
that help natural decomposition of organic
matter in water.
Saturated Zone— The area
below the water table where all open spaces
are filled with water under pressure equal
to or greater than that of the atmosphere.
Saturation— The condition
of a liquid when it has taken into solution
the maximum possible quantity of a given substance
at a given temperature and pressure.
Science Advisory Board (SAB)—
A group of external scientists who advise
EPA on science and policy.
Scrap— Materials discarded
from manufacturing operations that may be
suitable for reprocessing.
Scrap Metal Processor—
Intermediate operating facility where recovered
metal is sorted, cleaned of contaminants,
and prepared for recycling.
Screening— Use of screens
to remove coarse floating and suspended solids
Screening Risk Assessment—
A risk assessment performed with few data
and many assumptions to identify exposures
that should be evaluated more carefully for
Scrubber— An air pollution
device that uses a spray of water or reactant
or a dry process to trap pollutants in emissions.
Secondary Drinking Water Regulations—
Non-enforceable regulations applying to public
water systems and specifying the maximum contamination
levels that, in the judgment of EPA, are required
to protect the public welfare. These regulations
apply to any contaminants that may adversely
affect the odor or appearance of such water
and consequently may cause people served by
the system to discontinue its use.
Secondary Effect— Action
of a stressor on supporting components of
the ecosystem, which in turn impact the ecological
component of concern.
Secondary Materials— Materials
that have been manufactured and used at least
once and are to be used again.
National ambient air quality standards designed
to protect welfare, including effects on soils,
water, crops, vegetation, man-made (anthropogenic)
materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility,
and climate; damage to property; transportation
hazards; economic values, and personal comfort
The second step in most publicly owned waste
treatment systems in which bacteria consume
the organic parts of the waste. It is accomplished
by bringing together waste, bacteria, and
oxygen in trickling filters or in the activated
sludge process. This treatment removes floating
and settleable solids and about 90 percent
of the oxygen-demanding substances and suspended
solids. Disinfection is the final stage of
Secure Maximum Contaminant
Level— Maximum permissible level of
a contaminant in water delivered to the free
flowing outlet of the ultimate user, or of
contamination resulting from corrosion of
piping and plumbing caused by water quality.
Sediment Yield— The quantity
of sediment arriving at a specific location.
solids settle out of wastewater by gravity
Wastewater tanks in which floating wastes
are skimmed off and settled solids are removed
Sediments— Soil, sand,
and minerals washed from land into water,
usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs,
rivers and harbors, destroying fish and wildlife
habitat, and clouding the water so that sunlight
cannot reach aquatic plants. Careless farming,
mining, and building activities will expose
sediment materials, allowing them to wash
off the land after rainfall.
Seed Protectant— A chemical
applied before planting to protect seeds and
seedlings from disease or insects.
of water through the soil from unlined canals,
ditches, laterals, watercourses, or water
A chemical designed to affect only certain
types of pests, leaving other plants and animals
An aquifer partially confined by soil layers
of low permeability through which recharge
and discharge can still occur.
Semivolatile Organic Compounds—
Organic compounds that volatilize slowly at
standard temperature (20 degrees C and 1 atm
Senescence— The aging
process. Sometimes used to describe lakes
or other bodies of water in advanced stages
of eutrophication. Also used to describe plants
Septic System— An on-site
system designed to treat and dispose of domestic
sewage. A typical septic system consists of
tank that receives waste from a residence
or business and a system of tile lines or
a pit for disposal of the liquid effluent
(sludge) that remains after decomposition
of the solids by bacteria in the tank and
must be pumped out periodically.
Septic Tank— An underground
storage tank for wastes from homes not connected
to a sewer line. Waste goes directly from
the home to the tank.
Service Connector— The
pipe that carries tap water from a public
water main to a building.
Service Line Sample—
A one-liter sample of water that has been
standing for at least 6 hours in a service
pipeline and is collected according to federal
Service Pipe— The pipeline
extending from the water main to the building
served or to the consumer’s system.
Set-Back— Setting a thermometer
to a lower temperature when the building is
unoccupied to reduce consumption of heating
energy. Also refers to setting the thermometer
to a higher temperature during unoccupied
periods in the cooling season.
Settleable Solids— Material
heavy enough to sink to the bottom of a wastewater
Settling Chamber— A series
of screens placed in the way of flue gases
to slow the stream of air, thus helping gravity
to pull particles into a collection device.
Settling Tank— A holding
area for wastewater, where heavier particles
sink to the bottom for removal and disposal.
7Q10— Seven-day, consecutive
low flow with a ten year return frequency;
the lowest stream flow for seven consecutive
days that would be expected to occur once
in ten years.
Sewage— The waste and
wastewater produced by residential and commercial
sources and discharged into sewers.
Sewage Sludge— Sludge
produced at a Publicly Owned Treatment Works,
the disposal of which is regulated under the
Clean Water Act.
Sewer— A channel or conduit
that carries wastewater and storm-water runoff
from the source to a treatment plant or receiving
stream. “Sanitary” sewers carry
household, industrial, and commercial waste.
“Storm” sewers carry runoff from
rain or snow. “Combined” sewers
Sewerage— The entire
system of sewage collection, treatment, and
The amount of the sun’s heat transmitted
through a given window compared with that
of a standard 1/8- inch-thick single pane
of glass under the same conditions.
Sharps— Hypodermic needles,
syringes (with or without the attached needle),
Pasteur pipettes, scalpel blades, blood vials,
needles with attached tubing, and culture
dishes used in animal or human patient care
or treatment, or in medical, research or industrial
laboratories. Also included are other types
of broken or unbroken glassware that were
in contact with infectious agents, such as
used slides and cover slips, and unused hypodermic
and suture needles, syringes, and scalpel
Shock Load— The arrival
at a water treatment plant of raw water containing
unusual amounts of algae, colloidal matter.
color, suspended solids, turbidity, or other
some of the water in tanks or basins flows
faster than the rest; may result in shorter
contact, reaction, or settling times than
calculated or presumed.
Sick Building Syndrome—
Building whose occupants experience acute
health and/or comfort effects that appear
to be linked to time spent therein, but where
no specific illness or cause can be identified.
Complaints may be localized in a particular
room or zone, or may spread throughout the
Signal— The volume or
product-level change produced by a leak in
Signal Words— The words
used on a pesticide label—Danger, Warning,
Caution—to indicate level of toxicity.
Pollution resulting from a new source in previously
Significant Municipal Facilities—
Those publicly owned sewage treatment plants
that discharge a million gallons per day or
more and are therefore considered by states
to have the potential to substantially affect
the quality of receiving waters.
Significant Potential Source
of Contamination— A facility or activity
that stores, uses, or produces compounds with
potential for significant contaminating impact
if released into the source water of a public
Violations by point source dischargers of
sufficient magnitude or duration to be a regulatory
Silt— Sedimentary materials
composed of fine or intermediate-sized mineral
of forest land for timber.
Small one-liter canister designed to capture
a single breath. Used in air pollutant ingestion
Sink— Place in the environment
where a compound or material collects.
oil spills by using an agent to trap the oil
and sink it to the bottom of the body of water
where the agent and the oil are biodegraded.
SIP Call— EPA action
requiring a state to resubmit all or part
of its State Implementation Plan to demonstrate
attainment of the require national ambient
air quality standards within the statutory
deadline. A SIP Revision is a revision of
a SIP altered at the request of EPA or on
a state’s initiative.
Site— An area or place
within the jurisdiction of the EPA and/or
Site Assessment Program—
A means of evaluating hazardous waste sites
through preliminary assessments and site inspections
to develop a Hazard Ranking System score.
Site Inspection— The
collection of information from a Superfund
site to determine the extent and severity
of hazards posed by the site. It follows and
is more extensive than a preliminary assessment.
The purpose is to gather information necessary
to score the site, using the Hazard Ranking
System, and to determine if it presents an
immediate threat requiring prompt removal.
Site Safety Plan— A crucial
element in all removal actions, it includes
information on equipment being used, precautions
to be taken, and steps to take in the event
of an on-site emergency.
Siting— The process of
choosing a location for a facility.
Skimming— Using a machine
to remove oil or scum from the surface of
Slow Sand Filtration—
Passage of raw water through a bed of sand
at low velocity, resulting in substantial
removal of chemical and biological contaminants.
Sludge— A semi-solid
residue from any of a number of air or water
treatment processes; can be a hazardous waste.
Sludge Digester— Tank
in which complex organic substances like sewage
sludges are biologically dredged. During these
reactions, energy is released and much of
the sewage is converted to methane, carbon
dioxide, and water.
Slurry— A watery mixture
of insoluble matter resulting from some pollution
Small Quantity Generator (SQG-sometimes
referred to as “Squeegee”)—
Persons or enterprises that produce 220-2200
pounds per month of hazardous waste; they
are required to keep more records than conditionally
exempt generators. The largest category of
hazardous waste generators, SQGs, include
automotive shops, dry cleaners, photographic
developers, and many other small businesses.
Smelter— A facility that
melts or fuses ore, often with an accompanying
chemical change, to separate its metal content.
Emissions cause pollution. “Smelting”
is the process involved.
Smog— Air pollution typically
associated with oxidants.
Smoke— Particles suspended
in air after incomplete combustion.
Soft Detergents— Cleaning
agents that break down in nature.
Soft Water— Any water
that does not contain a significant amount
of dissolved minerals such as salts of calcium
Soil Adsorption Field—
A sub-surface area containing a trench or
bed with clean stones and a system of piping
through which treated sewage may seep into
the surrounding soil for further treatment
Soil and Water Conservation
Practices— Control measures consisting
of managerial, vegetative, and structural
practices to reduce the loss of soil and water.
Soil Conditioner— An
organic material like humus or compost that
helps soil absorb water, build a bacterial
community, and take up mineral nutrients.
Soil Erodibility— An
indicator of a soil’s susceptibility
to raindrop impact, runoff, and other erosive
Soil Gas— Gaseous elements
and compounds in the small spaces between
particles of the earth and soil. Such gases
can be moved or driven out under pressure.
Soil Moisture— The water
contained in the pore space of the unsaturated
Soil Sterilant— A chemical
that temporarily or permanently prevents the
growth of all plants and animals,
Solder— Metallic compound
used to seal joints between pipes. Until recently,
most solder contained 50 percent lead. Use
of solder containing more than 0.2 percent
lead in pipes carrying drinking water is now
An aquifer that supplies 50-percent or more
of the drinking water of an area.
Solid Waste— Non-liquid,
non-soluble materials ranging from municipal
garbage to industrial wastes that contain
complex and sometimes hazardous substances.
Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural
refuse, demolition wastes, and mining residues.
Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids
and gases in containers.
Solid Waste Disposal—
The final placement of refuse that is not
salvaged or recycled.
Solid Waste Management—
Supervised handling of waste materials from
their source through recovery processes to
Solidification and Stabilization—
Removal of wastewater from a waste or changing
it chemically to make it less permeable and
susceptible to transport by water.
Solubility— The amount
of mass of a compound that will dissolve in
a unit volume of solution. Aqueous Solubility
is the maximum concentration of a chemical
that will dissolve in pure water at a reference
Soot— Carbon dust formed
by incomplete combustion.
Sorption— The action
of soaking up or attracting substances; process
used in many pollution control systems.
Source Area— The location
of liquid hydrocarbons or the zone of highest
soil or groundwater concentrations, or both,
of the chemical of concern.
Source Characterization Measurements—
Measurements made to estimate the rate of
release of pollutants into the environment
from a source such as an incinerator, landfill,
Source Reduction— Reducing
the amount of materials entering the waste
stream from a specific source by redesigning
products or patterns of production or consumption
(e.g., using returnable beverage containers).
Synonymous with waste reduction.
Source Separation— Segregating
various wastes at the point of generation
(e.g., separation of paper, metal and glass
from other wastes to make recycling simpler
and more efficient).
Source-Water Protection Area—
The area delineated by a state for a Public
Water Supply or including numerous such suppliers,
whether the source is ground water or surface
water or both.
Sparge or Sparging— Injection
of air below the water table to strip dissolved
volatile organic compounds and/or oxygenate
ground water to facilitate aerobic biodegradation
of organic compounds.
Special Local-Needs Registration—
Registration of a pesticide product by a state
agency for a specific use that is not federally
registered. However, the active ingredient
must be federally registered for other uses.
The special use is specific to that state
and is often minor, thus may not warrant the
additional cost of a full federal registration
process. SLN registration cannot be issued
for new active ingredients, food-use active
ingredients without tolerances, or for a canceled
registration. The products cannot be shipped
across state lines.
Special Review— Formerly
known as Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration
(RPAR), this is the regulatory process through
which existing pesticides suspected of posing
unreasonable risks to human health, non-target
organisms, or the environment are referred
for review by EPA. Such review requires an
intensive risk/benefit analysis with opportunity
for public comment. If risk is found to outweigh
social and economic benefits, regulatory actions
can be initiated, ranging from label revisions
and use-restriction to cancellation or suspended
Special Waste— Items
such as household hazardous waste, bulky wastes
(refrigerators, pieces of furniture, etc.)
tires, and used oil.
Species— 1. A reproductively
isolated aggregate of interbreeding organisms
having common attributes and usually designated
by a common name.2. An organism belonging
to belonging to such a category.
Rapid method of estimating the dissolved solid
content of a water supply by testing its capacity
to carry an electrical current.
Specific Yield— The amount
of water a unit volume of saturated permeable
rock will yield when drained by gravity.
Spill Prevention, Containment,
and Countermeasures Plan (SPCP)— Plan
covering the release of hazardous substances
as defined in the Clean Water Act.
Spoil— Dirt or rock removed
from its original location—destroying
the composition of the soil in the process—as
in strip-mining, dredging, or construction.
Sprawl— Unplanned development
of open land.
Spray Tower Scrubber—
A device that sprays alkaline water into a
chamber where acid gases are present to aid
in neutralizing the gas.
Spring— Ground water
seeping out of the earth where the water table
intersects the ground surface.
Spring Melt/Thaw— The
process whereby warm temperatures melt winter
snow and ice. Because various forms of acid
deposition may have been stored in the frozen
water, the melt can result in abnormally large
amounts of acidity entering streams and rivers,
sometimes causing fish kills.
of the active organic matter in sludge into
inert, harmless material.
Stable Air— A motionless
mass of air that holds, instead of dispersing,
Stack— A chimney, smokestack,
or vertical pipe that discharges used air.
Stack Effect— Air, as
in a chimney, that moves upward because it
is warmer than the ambient atmosphere.
Stack Effect— Flow of
air resulting from warm air rising, creating
a positive pressure area at the top of a building
and negative pressure area at the bottom.
This effect can overpower the mechanical system
and disrupt building ventilation and air circulation.
Stage II Controls— Systems
placed on service station gasoline pumps to
control and capture gasoline vapors during
Stagnation— Lack of motion
in a mass of air or water that holds pollutants
Stakeholder— Any organization,
governmental entity, or individual that has
a stake in or may be impacted by a given approach
to environmental regulation, pollution prevention,
energy conservation, etc.
Standard Sample— The
part of finished drinking water that is examined
for the presence of coliform bacteria.
Standards— Norms that
impose limits on the amount of pollutants
or emissions produced. EPA establishes minimum
standards, but states are allowed to be stricter.
Start of a Response Action—
The point in time when there is a guarantee
or set-aside of funding by EPA, other federal
agencies, states or Principal Responsible
Parties in order to begin response actions
at a Superfund site.
State Emergency Response Commission
(SERC)— Commission appointed by each
state governor according to the requirements
of SARA Title III. The SERCs designate emergency
planning districts, appoint local emergency
planning committees, and supervise and coordinate
State Environmental Goals and
Indication Project— Program to assist
state environmental agencies by providing
technical and financial assistance in the
development of environmental goals and indicators.
State Implementation Plans
(SIP)— EPA approved state plans for
the establishment, regulation, and enforcement
of air pollution standards.
State Management Plan—
Under FIFRA, a state management plan required
by EPA to allow states, tribes, and U.S. territories
the flexibility to design and implement ways
to protect ground water from the use of certain
Static Water Depth— The
vertical distance from the centerline of the
pump discharge down to the surface level of
the free pool while no water is being drawn
from the pool or water table.
Static Water Level— 1.
Elevation or level of the water table in a
well when the pump is not operating. 2. The
level or elevation to which water would rise
in a tube connected to an artesian aquifer
or basin in a conduit under pressure.
Stationary Source— A
fixed-site producer of pollution, mainly power
plants and other facilities using industrial
Sterilization— The removal
or destruction of all microorganisms, including
pathogenic and other bacteria, vegetative
forms, and spores.
Sterilizer— One of three
groups of anti-microbials registered by EPA
for public health uses. EPA considers an antimicrobial
to be a sterilizer when it destroys or eliminates
all forms of bacteria, viruses, and fungi
and their spores. Because spores are considered
the most difficult form of microorganism to
destroy, EPA considers the term sporicide
to be synonymous with sterilizer.
Storage— Temporary holding
of waste pending treatment or disposal, as
in containers, tanks, waste piles, and surface
Storm Sewer— A system
of pipes (separate from sanitary sewers) that
carries water runoff from buildings and land
Stratigraphy— Study of
the formation, composition, and sequence of
sediments, whether consolidated or not.
Stratosphere— The portion
of the atmosphere 10-to-25 miles above the
chemical, or biological entities that can
induce adverse effects on ecosystems or human
crops in a systematic arrangement of strips
or bands that serve as barriers to wind and
Strip-Mining— A process
that uses machines to scrape soil or rock
away from mineral deposits just under the
Distortion in walls of a tank after liquid
has been added or removed.
Subchronic— Of intermediate
duration, usually used to describe studies
or periods of exposure lasting between 5 and
Multiple or continuous exposures lasting for
approximately ten percent of an experimental
species lifetime, usually over a three-month
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation—
Vegetation that lives at or below the water
surface; an important habitat for young fish
and other aquatic organisms.
perimeter of the catchment area of a stream
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)—
A pungent, colorless, gasformed primarily
by the combustion of fossil fuels; becomes
a pollutant when present in large amounts.
Sump— A pit or tank that
catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.
with doses that are deliberately selected
to produce water free of combined residuals
so large as to require dechlorination.
A type of thermal treatment using moderate
temperatures and high pressures to enhance
the ability of water to break down large organic
molecules into smaller, less toxic ones. Oxygen
injected during this process combines with
simple organic compounds to form carbon dioxide
Superfund— The program
operated under the legislative authority of
CERCLA and SARA that funds and carries out
EPA solid waste emergency and long-term removal
and remedial activities. These activities
include establishing the National Priorities
List, investigating sites for inclusion on
the list, determining their priority, and
conducting and/or supervising cleanup and
other remedial actions.
Superfund Innovative Technology
Evaluation (SITE) Program— EPA program
to promote development and use of innovative
treatment and site characterization technologies
in Superfund site cleanups.
An arrangement whereby a registrant licenses
another company to market its pesticide product
under the second company’s registration.
Supplier of Water— Any
person who owns or operates a public water
Treatment, storage, or disposal of liquid
hazardous wastes in ponds.
Surface Runoff— Precipitation,
snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of
what can infiltrate the soil surface and be
stored in small surface depressions; a major
transporter of non-point source pollutants
in rivers, streams, and lakes.
Surface Uranium Mines—
Strip mining operations for removal of uranium-bearing
Surface Water— All water
naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers,
lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments,
seas, estuaries, etc.)
Surface-Water Treatment Rule—
Rule that specifies maximum contaminant level
goals for Giardia lamblia, viruses, and Legionella
and promulgates filtration and disinfection
requirements for public water systems using
surface-water or ground-water sources under
the direct influence of surface water. The
regulations also specify water quality, treatment,
and watershed protection criteria under which
filtration may be avoided.
Surfacing ACM— Asbestos-containing
material that is sprayed or troweled on or
otherwise applied to surfaces, such as acoustical
plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials
on structural members.
Surfacing Material— Material
sprayed or troweled onto structural members
(beams, columns, or decking) for fire protection;
or on ceilings or walls for fireproofing,
acoustical or decorative purposes. Includes
textured plaster, and other textured wall
and ceiling surfaces.
Surfactant— A detergent
compound that promotes lathering.
Surrogate Data— Data
from studies of test organisms or a test substance
that are used to estimate the characteristics
or effects on another organism or substance.
A series of monitoring devices designed to
check on environmental conditions.
An analysis to determine whether a Public
Water Supply is subject to significant pollution
from known potential sources.
Suspect Material— Building
material suspected of containing asbestos;
e.g., surfacing material, floor tile, ceiling
tile, thermal system insulation.
Suspended Loads— Specific
sediment particles maintained in the water
column by turbulence and carried with the
flow of water.
Suspended Solids— Small
particles of solid pollutants that float on
the surface of, or are suspended in, sewage
or other liquids. They resist removal by conventional
the use of a pesticide when EPA deems it necessary
to prevent an imminent hazard resulting from
its continued use. An emergency suspension
takes effect immediately; under an ordinary
suspension a registrant can request a hearing
before the suspension goes into effect. Such
a hearing process might take six months.
Suspension Culture— Cells
growing in a liquid nutrient medium.
Swamp— A type of wetland
dominated by woody vegetation but without
appreciable peat deposits. Swamps may be fresh
or salt water and tidal or non-tidal.
Synergism— An interaction
of two or more chemicals that results in an
effect greater than the sum of their separate
Synthetic Organic Chemicals
(SOCs)— Man-made (anthropogenic) organic
chemicals. Some SOCs are volatile; others
tend to stay dissolved in water instead of
System With a Single Service
Connection— A system that supplies drinking
water to consumers via a single service line.
Systemic Pesticide— A
chemical absorbed by an organism that interacts
with the organism and makes the organism toxic