GAAP— Generally Accepted
GAC— Granular Activated Carbon
GACT— Granular Activated Carbon Treatment
GAW— Global Atmospheric Watch
GCC— Global Climate Convention
GC/MS— Gas Chromatograph/ Mass Spectograph
GCVTC— Grand Canyon Visibility Transport
GCWR— Gross Combination Weight Rating
GDE— Generic Data Exemption
GEI— Geographic Enforcement Initiative
GEMI— Global Environmental Management
GEMS— Global Environmental Monitoring
System; Graphical Exposure Modeling System
GEP— Good Engineering Practice
GFF— Glass Fiber Filter
GFO— Grant Funding Order
GFP— Government-Furnished Property
GICS— Grant Information and Control
GIS— Geographic Information Systems;
Global Indexing System
GLC— Gas Liquid Chromatography
GLERL— Great Lakes Environmental Research
GLNPO— Great Lakes National Program
GLP— Good Laboratory Practices
GLWQA— Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
GMCC— Global Monitoring for Climatic
G/MI— Grams per mile
GOCO— Government-Owned/ Contractor-Operated
GOGO— Government-Owned/ Government-Operated
GOP— General Operating Procedures
GOPO— Government-Owned/ Privately-Operated
GPAD— Gallons-per-acre per-day
GPR— Ground-Penetrating Radar
GPS— Groundwater Protection Strategy
GR— Grab Radon Sampling
GRAS— Generally Recognized as Safe
GRCDA— Government Refuse Collection
and Disposal Association
GRGL— Groundwater Residue Guidance Level
GT— Gas Turbine
GTN— Global Trend Network
GTR— Government Transportation Request
GVP— Gasoline Vapor Pressure
GVW— Gross Vehicle Weight
GVWR— Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
GW— Grab Working-Level Sampling. Groundwater
GWDR— Ground Water Disinfection Rule
GWM— Groundwater Monitoring
GWP— Global Warming Potential
GWPC— Ground Water Protection Council
GWPS— Groundwater Protection Standard;
Groundwater Protection Strategy
Game Fish— Species like
trout, salmon, or bass, caught for sport.
Many of them show more sensitivity to environmental
change than “rough” fish.
Garbage— Animal and vegetable
waste resulting from the handling, storage,
sale, preparation, cooking, and serving of
Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer—
Instrument that identifies the molecular composition
and concentrations of various chemicals in
water and soil samples.
Gasahol— Mixture of gasoline
and ethanol derived from fermented agricultural
products containing at least nine percent
ethanol. Gasohol emissions contain less carbon
monoxide than those from gasoline.
of solid material such as coal into a gas
for use as a fuel.
Gasoline Volatility— The
property of gasoline whereby it evaporates
into a vapor. Gasoline vapor is a mixture
of volatile organic compounds.
General Permit— A permit
applicable to a class or category of dischargers.
General Reporting Facility—
A facility having one or more hazardous chemicals
above the 10,000 pound threshold for planning
quantities. Such facilities must file MSDS
and emergency inventory information with the
SERC, LEPC, and local fire departments.
Generally Recognized as Safe
(GRAS)— Designation by the FDA that
a chemical or substance (including certain
pesticides) added to food is considered safe
by experts, and so is exempted from the usual
FFDCA food additive tolerance requirements.
Generator— 1. A facility
or mobile source that emits pollutants into
the air or releases hazardous waste into water
or soil. 2. Any person, by site, whose act
or process produces regulated medical waste
or whose act first causes such waste to become
subject to regulation. Where more than one
person (e.g. doctors with separate medical
practices) are located in the same building,
each business entity is a separate generator.
Genetic Engineering— A
process of inserting new genetic information
into existing cells in order to modify a specific
organism for the purpose of changing one of
Genotoxic— Damaging to
DNA; pertaining to agents known to damage
Geographic Information System
(GIS)— A computer system designed for
storing, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying
data in a geographic context.
Geological Log— A detailed
description of all underground features (depth,
thickness, type of formation) discovered during
the drilling of a well.
Geophysical Log— A record
of the structure and composition of the earth
encountered when drilling a well or similar
type of test hold or boring.
Geothermal/Ground Source Heat
Pump— These heat pumps are underground
coils to transfer heat from the ground to
the inside of a building.
Germicide— Any compound
that kills disease-causing microorganisms.
Giardia Lamblia— Protozoan
in the feces of humans and animals that can
cause severe gastrointestinal ailments. It
is a common contaminant of surface waters.
Glass Containers— For
recycling purposes, containers like bottles
and jars for drinks, food, cosmetics and other
products. When being recycled, container glass
is generally separated into color categories
for conversion into new containers, construction
materials or fiberglass insulation.
Global Warming— An increase
in the near surface temperature of the Earth.
Global warming has occurred in the distant
past as the result of natural influences,
but the term is most often used to refer to
the warming predicted to occur as a result
of increased emissions of greenhouse gases.
Scientists generally agree that the Earth’s
surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit
in the past 140 years. The Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently concluded
that increased concentrations of greenhouse
gases are causing an increase in the Earth’s
surface temperature and that increased concentrations
of sulfate aerosols have led to relative cooling
in some regions, generally over and downwind
of heavily industrialized areas.
Global Warming Potential—
The ratio of the warming caused by a substance
to the warming caused by a similar mass of
carbon dioxide. CFC-12, for example, has a
GWP of 8,500, while water has a GWP of zero.
Glovebag— A polyethylene
or polyvinyl chloride bag-like enclosure affixed
around an asbestos-containing source (most
often thermal system insulation) permitting
the material to be removed while minimizing
release of airborne fibers to the surrounding
Gooseneck— A portion of
a water service connection between the distribution
system water main and a meter. Sometimes called
Grab Sample— A single
sample collected at a particular time and
place that represents the composition of the
water, air, or soil only at that time and
Grain Loading— The rate
at which particles are emitted from a pollution
source. Measurement is made by the number
of grains per cubic foot of gas emitted.
Granular Activated Carbon Treatment—
A filtering system often used in small water
systems and individual homes to remove organics.
Also used by municipal water treatment plantsd.
GAC can be highly effective in lowering elevated
levels of radon in water.
Grasscycling— Source reduction
activities in which grass clippings are left
on the lawn after mowing.
Grassed Waterway— Natural
or constructed watercourse or outlet that
is shaped or graded and established in suitable
vegetation for the disposal of runoff water
Gray Water— Domestic wastewater
composed of wash water from kitchen, bathroom,
and laundry sinks, tubs, and washers.
Greenhouse Effect— The
warming of the Earth’s atmosphere attributed
to a buildup of carbon dioxide or other gases;
some scientists think that this build-up allows
the sun’s rays to heat the Earth, while
making the infra-red radiation atmosphere
opaque to infra-red radiation, thereby preventing
a counterbalancing loss of heat.
Greenhouse Gas— A gas,
such as carbon dioxide or methane, which contributes
to potential climate change.
Grinder Pump— A mechanical
device that shreds solids and raises sewage
to a higher elevation through pressure sewers.
Gross Alpha/Beta Particle Activity—
The total radioactivity due to alpha or beta
particle emissions as inferred from measurements
on a dry sample.
Gross Power-Generation Potential—
The installed power generation capacity that
landfill gas can support.
Ground Cover— Plants grown
to keep soil from eroding.
Ground Water— The supply
of fresh water found beneath the Earth’s
surface, usually in aquifers, which supply
wells and springs. Because ground water is
a major source of drinking water, there is
growing concern over contamination from leaching
agricultural or industrial pollutants or leaking
underground storage tanks.
Ground Water Under the Direct
Influence (UDI) of Surface Water— Any
water beneath the surface of the ground with—
1. significant occurence of insects or other
microorganisms, algae, or large-diameter pathogens;
2. significant and relatively rapid shifts
in water characteristics such as turbidity,
temperature, conductivity, or pH which closely
correlate to climatological or surface water
conditions. Direct influence is determined
for individual sources in accordance with
criteria established by a state.
A geophysical method that uses high frequency
electromagnetic waves to obtain subsurface
Ground water entering near coastal waters
which has been contaminated by landfill leachate,
deep well injection of hazardous wastes, septic
Ground-Water Disinfection Rule—
A 1996 amendment of the Safe Drinking Water
Act requiring EPA to promulgate national primary
drinking water regulations requiring disinfection
as for all public water systems, including
surface waters and ground water systems.
Gully Erosion— Severe
erosion in which trenches are cut to a depth
greater than 30 centimeters (a foot). Generally,
ditches deep enough to cross with farm equipment
are considered gullies.