FACA— Federal Advisory
FAN— Fixed Account Number
FATES— FIFRA and TSCA Enforcement System
FBC— Fluidized Bed Combustion
FCC— Fluid Catalytic Converter
FCCC— Framework Convention on Climate
FCCU— Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
FCO— Federal Coordinating Officer (in
disaster areas); Forms Control Officer
FDF— Fundamentally Different Factors
FDL— Final Determination Letter
FDO— Fee Determination Official
FE— Fugitive Emissions
FEDS— Federal Energy Data System
FEFx— Forced Expiratory Flow
FEIS— Fugitive Emissions Information
FEL— Frank Effect Level
FEPCA— Federal Environmental Pesticide
Control Act; enacted as amendments to FIFRA.
FERC— Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FES— Factor Evaluation System
FEV— Forced Expiratory Volume
FEV1— Forced Expiratory Volume—one
second; Front End Volatility Index
FF— Federal Facilities
FFAR— Fuel and Fuel Additive Registration
FFDCA— Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
FFF— Firm Financial Facility
FFFSG— Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generator
FFIS— Federal Facilities Information
FFP— Firm Fixed Price
FGD— Flue-Gas Desulfurization
FID— Flame Ionization Detector
FIFRA— Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act
FIM— Friable Insulation Material
FINDS— Facility Index System
FIP— Final Implementation Plan
FIPS— Federal Information Procedures
FIT— Field Investigation Team
FLETC— Federal Law Enforcement Training
FLM— Federal Land Manager
FLP— Flash Point
FLPMA— Federal Land Policy and Management
FMAP— Financial Management Assistance
F/M— Food to Microorganism Ratio
FML— Flexible Membrane Liner
FMP— Facility Management Plan
FMP— Financial Management Plan
FMS— Financial Management System
FMVCP— Federal Motor Vehicle Control
FOE— Friends Of the Earth
FOIA— Freedom Of Information Act
FOISD— Fiber Optic Isolated Spherical
FONSI— Finding Of No Significant Impact
FORAST— Forest Response to Anthropogenic
FP— Fine Particulate
FPA— Federal Pesticide Act
FPAS— Foreign Purchase Acknowledgement
FPD— Flame Photometric Detector
FPEIS— Fine Particulate Emissions Information
FPM— Federal Personnel Manual
FPPA— Federal Pollution Prevention Act
FPR— Federal Procurement Regulation
FPRS— Federal Program Resources Statement;
Formal Planning and Supporting System
FQPA— Food Quality Protection Act
FR— Federal Register. Final Rulemaking
FRA— Federal Register Act
FREDS— Flexible Regional Emissions Data
FRES— Forest Range Environmental Study
FRM— Federal Reference Methods
FRN— Federal Register Notice. Final
FRS— Formal Reporting System
FS— Feasibility Study
FSA— Food Security Act
FSS— Facility Status Sheet; Federal
FTP— Federal Test Procedure (for motor
FTS— File Transfer Service
FTTS— FIFRA/TSCA Tracking System
FUA— Fuel Use Act
FURS— Federal Underground Injection
Control Reporting System
FVMP— Federal Visibility Monitoring
FWCA— Fish and Wildlife Coordination
FWPCA— Federal Water Pollution and Control
Act (aka CWA). Federal Water Pollution and
Fabric Filter— A cloth
device that catches dust particles from industrial
Facilities Plans— Plans
and studies related to the construction of
treatment works necessary to comply with the
Clean Water Act or RCRA. A facilities plan
investigates needs and provides information
on the cost-effectiveness of alternatives,
a recommended plan, an environmental assessment
of the recommendations, and descriptions of
the treatment works, costs, and a completion
Facility Emergency Coordinator—
Representative of a facility covered by environmental
law (e.g, a chemical plant) who participates
in the emergency reporting process with the
Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC).
Bacteria that can live under aerobic or anaerobic
Feasibility Study— 1.
Analysis of the practicability of a proposal;
e.g., a description and analysis of potential
cleanup alternatives for a site such as one
on the National Priorities List. The feasibility
study usually recommends selection of a cost-effective
alternative. It usually starts as soon as
the remedial investigation is underway; together,
they are commonly referred to as the “RI/FS”.
2. A small-scale investigation of a problem
to ascertain whether a proposed research approach
is likely to provide useful data.
Fecal Coliform Bacteria—
Bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of
mammals. Their presence in water or sludge
is an indicator of pollution and possible
contamination by pathogens.
Federal Implementation Plan—
Under current law, a federally implemented
plan to achieve attainment of air quality
standards, used when a state is unable to
develop an adequate plan.
Federal Motor Vehicle Control
Program— All federal actions aimed at
controlling pollution from motor vehicles
by such efforts as establishing and enforcing
tailpipe and evaporative emission standards
for new vehicles, testing methods development,
and guidance to states operating inspection
and maintenance programs. Federally designated
area that is required to meet and maintain
federal ambient air quality standards. May
include nearby locations in the same state
or nearby states that share common air pollution
Feedlot— A confined area
for the controlled feeding of animals. Tends
to concentrate large amounts of animal waste
that cannot be absorbed by the soil and, hence,
may be carried to nearby streams or lakes
by rainfall runoff.
Fen— A type of wetland
that accumulates peat deposits. Fens are less
acidic than bogs, deriving most of their water
from groundwater rich in calcium and magnesium.
Ferrous Metals— Magnetic
metals derived from iron or steel; products
made from ferrous metals include appliances,
furniture, containers, and packaging like
steel drums and barrels. Recycled products
include processing tin/steel cans, strapping,
and metals from appliances into new products.
FIFRA Pesticide Ingredient—
An ingredient of a pesticide that must be
registered with EPA under the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Products making
pesticide claims must register under FIFRA
and may be subject to labeling and use requirements.
Fill— Man-made deposits
of natural soils or rock products and waste
Filling— Depositing dirt,
mud or other materials into aquatic areas
to create more dry land, usually for agricultural
or commercial development purposes, often
with ruinous ecological consequences.
Filter Strip— Strip or
area of vegetation used for removing sediment,
organic matter, and other pollutants from
runoff and wastewater.
Filtration— A treatment
process, under the control of qualified operators,
for removing solid (particulate) matter from
water by means of porous media such as sand
or a man-made filter; often used to remove
particles that contain pathogens.
Financial Assurance for Closure—
Documentation or proof that an owner or operator
of a facility such as a landfill or other
waste repository is capable of paying the
projected costs of closing the facility and
monitoring it afterwards as provided in RCRA
Finding of No Significant Impact—
A document prepared by a federal agency showing
why a proposed action would not have a significant
impact on the environment and thus would not
require preparation of an Environmental Impact
Statement. An FNSI is based on the results
of an environmental assessment.
Finished Water— Water
is “finished” when it has passed
through all the processes in a water treatment
plant and is ready to be delivered to consumers.
First Draw— The water
that comes out when a tap is first opened,
likely to have the highest level of lead contamination
from plumbing materials.
Fix a Sample— A sample
is “fixed” in the field by adding
chemicals that prevent water quality indicators
of interest in the sample from changing before
laboratory measurements are made.
Sampling of an environmental or ambient medium
for pollutant concentration at one location
continuously or repeatedly.
Flammable— Any material
that ignites easily and will burn rapidly.
Flare— A control device
that burns hazardous materials to prevent
their release into the environment; may operate
continuously or intermittently, usually on
top of a stack.
Flash Point— The lowest
temperature at which evaporation of a substance
produces sufficient vapor to form an ignitable
mixture with air.
Floc— A clump of solids
formed in sewage by biological or chemical
by which clumps of solids in water or sewage
aggregate through biological or chemical action
so they can be separated from water or sewage.
Floodplain— The flat or
nearly flat land along a river or stream or
in a tidal area that is covered by water during
Floor Sweep— Capture of
heavier-than-air gases that collect at floor
Flow Rate— The rate, expressed
in gallons -or liters-per-hour, at which a
fluid escapes from a hole or fissure in a
tank. Such measurements are also made of liquid
waste, effluent, and surface water movement.
Flowable— Pesticide and
other formulations in which the active ingredients
are finely ground insoluble solids suspended
in a liquid. They are mixed with water for
Flowmeter— A gauge indicating
the velocity of wastewater moving through
a treatment plant or of any liquid moving
through various industrial processes.
Flue Gas— The air coming
out of a chimney after combustion in the burner
it is venting. It can include nitrogen oxides,
carbon oxides, water vapor, sulfur oxides,
particles and many chemical pollutants.
Flue Gas Desulfurization—
A technology that employs a sorbent, usually
lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide
from the gases produced by burning fossil
fuels. Flue gas desulfurization is current
state-of-the art technology for major SO2
emitters, like power plants.
Fluidized— A mass of solid
particles that is made to flow like a liquid
by injection of water or gas is said to have
been fluidized. In water treatment, a bed
of filter media is fluidized by backwashing
water through the filter.
Fluidized Bed Incinerator—
An incinerator that uses a bed of hot sand
or other granular material to transfer heat
directly to waste. Used mainly for destroying
Flume— A natural or man-made
channel that diverts water.
Fluoridation— The addition
of a chemical to increase the concentration
of fluoride ions in drinking water to reduce
the incidence of tooth decay.
Fluorides— Gaseous, solid,
or dissolved compounds containing fluorine
that result from industrial processes. Excessive
amounts in food can lead to fluorosis.
Any of a number of organic compounds analogous
to hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen
atoms are replaced by fluorine. Once used
in the United States as a propellant for domestic
aerosols, they are now found mainly in coolants
and some industrial processes. FCs containing
chlorine are called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
They are believed to be modifying the ozone
layer in the stratosphere, thereby allowing
more harmful solar radiation to reach the
Flush— 1. To open a cold-water
tap to clear out all the water which may have
been sitting for a long time in the pipes.
In new homes, to flush a system means to send
large volumes of water gushing through the
unused pipes to remove loose particles of
solder and flux. 2. To force large amounts
of water through a system to clean out piping
or tubing, and storage or process tanks.
Flux— 1. A flowing or
flow. 2. A substance used to help metals fuse
Fly Ash— Non-combustible
residual particles expelled by flue gas.
Fogging— Applying a pesticide
by rapidly heating the liquid chemical so
that it forms very fine droplets that resemble
smoke or fog. Used to destroy mosquitoes,
black flies, and similar pests.
Food Chain— A sequence
of organisms, each of which uses the next,
lower member of the sequence as a food source.
Food Processing Waste—
Food residues produced during agricultural
and industrial operations.
Food Waste— Uneaten food
and food preparation wastes from residences
and commercial establishments such as grocery
stores, restaurants, and produce stands, institutional
cafeterias and kitchens, and industrial sources
like employee lunchrooms.
Food Web— The feeding
relationships by which energy and nutrients
are transferred from one species to another.
Formaldehyde— A colorless,
pungent, and irritating gas, CH20, used chiefly
as a disinfectant and preservative and in
synthesizing other compounds like resins.
Formulation— The substances
comprising all active and inert ingredients
in a pesticide.
Fossil Fuel— Fuel derived
from ancient organic remains; e.g. peat, coal,
crude oil, and natural gas.
Fracture— A break in a
rock formation due to structural stresses;
e.g. faults, shears, joints, and planes of
Free Product— A petroleum
hydrocarbon in the liquid free or non aqueous
Freeboard— 1. Vertical
distance from the normal water surface to
the top of a confining wall. 2. Vertical distance
from the sand surface to the underside of
a trough in a sand filter.
Fresh Water— Water that
generally contains less than 1,000 milligrams-per-liter
of dissolved solids.
Friable— Capable of being
crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder
by hand pressure.
Friable Asbestos— Any
material containing more than one-percent
asbestos, and that can be crumbled or reduced
to powder by hand pressure. (May include previously
non-friable material which becomes broken
or damaged by mechanical force.)
Fuel Economy Standard—
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard
(CAFE) effective in 1978. It enhanced the
national fuel conservation effort imposing
a miles-per-gallon floor for motor vehicles.
Fuel Efficiency— The proportion
of energy released by fuel combustion that
is converted into useful energy.
Fuel Switching— 1. A precombustion
process whereby a low-sulfur coal is used
in place of a higher sulfur coal in a power
plant to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions.
2. Illegally using leaded gasoline in a motor
vehicle designed to use only unleaded.
Fugitive Emissions— Emissions
not caught by a capture system.
Fume— Tiny particles trapped
in vapor in a gas stream.
Fumigant— A pesticide
vaporized to kill pests. Used in buildings
Term used to describe EPA’s decision-making
process and its relationship to the environmental
review conducted under the National Environmental
Policy Act (NEPA). A review is considered
functionally equivalent when it addresses
the substantive components of a NEPA review.
which are used to control, deter, or destroy
Fungistat— A chemical
that keeps fungi from growing.
Fungus (Fungi)— Molds,
mildews, yeasts, mushrooms, and puffballs,
a group of organisms lacking in chlorophyll
(i.e. are not photosynthetic) and which are
usually non-mobile, filamentous, and multicellular.
Some grow in soil, others attach themselves
to decaying trees and other plants whence
they obtain nutrients. Some are pathogens,
others stabilize sewage and digest composted
Furrow Irrigation— Irrigation
method in which water travels through the
field by means of small channels between each
groups of rows.
Future Liability— Refers
to potentially responsible parties’
obligations to pay for additional response
activities beyond those specified in the Record
of Decision or Consent Decree.