EA— Endangerment Assessment;
Enforcement Agreement; Environmental Action;
Environmental Assessment;. Environmental Audit
EAF— Electric Arc Furnaces
EAG— Exposure Assessment Group
EAP— Environmental Action Plan
EAR— Environmental Auditing Roundtable
EASI— Environmental Alliance for Senior
EB— Emissions Balancing
EC— Emulsifiable Concentrate; Environment
Canada; Effective Concentration
ECA— Economic Community for Africa
ECAP— Employee Counselling and Assistance
ECD— Electron Capture Detector
ECHH— Electro-Catalytic Hyper-Heaters
ECL— Environmental Chemical Laboratory
ECOS— Environmental Council of the States
ECR— Enforcement Case Review
ECRA— Economic Cleanup Responsibility
ED— Effective Dose
EDA— Emergency Declaration Area
EDB— Ethylene Dibromide
EDC— Ethylene Dichloride
EDD— Enforcement Decision Document
EDF— Environmental Defense Fund
EDRS— Enforcement Document Retrieval
EDS— Electronic Data System; Energy
EDTA— Ethylene Diamine Triacetic Acid
EDX— Electronic Data Exchange
EDZ— Emission Density Zoning
EEA— Energy and Environmental Analysis
EECs— Estimated Environmental Concentrations
EER— Excess Emission Report
EERL— Eastern Environmental Radiation
EERU— Environmental Emergency Response
EESI— Environment and Energy Study Institute
EESL— Environmental Ecological and Support
EETFC— Environmental Effects, Transport,
and Fate Committee
EF— Emission Factor
EFO— Equivalent Field Office
EFTC— European Fluorocarbon Technical
EGR— Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EH— Redox Potential
EHC— Environmental Health Committee
EHS— Extremely Hazardous Substance
EI— Emissions Inventory
EIA— Environmental Impact Assessment.
Economic Impact Assessment
EIL— Environmental Impairment Liability
EIR— Endangerment Information Report;
Environmental Impact Report
EIS— Environmental Impact Statement;
Environmental Inventory System
EIS/AS— Emissions Inventory System/Area
EIS/PS— Emissions Inventory System/Point
EKMA— Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach
EL— Exposure Level
ELI— Environmental Law Institute
ELR— Environmental Law Reporter
EM— Electromagnetic Conductivity
EMAP— Environmental Mapping and Assessment
EMAS— Enforcement Management and Accountability
EMR— Environmental Management Report
EMS— Enforcement Management System
EMSL— Environmental Monitoring Support
EMTS— Environmental Monitoring Testing
Site; Exposure Monitoring Test Site
EnPA— Environmental Performance Agreement
EO— Ethylene Oxide
EOC— Emergency Operating Center
EOF— Emergency Operations Facility (RTP)
EOP— End Of Pipe
EOT— Emergency Operations Team
EP— Earth Protectors; Environmental
Profile; End-use Product; Experimental Product;
EPAA— Environmental Programs Assistance
EPAAR— EPA Acquisition Regulations
EPCA— Energy Policy and Conservation
EPACT— Environmental Policy Act
EPACASR— EPA Chemical Activities Status
EPCRA— Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act
EPD— Emergency Planning District
EPI— Environmental Policy Institute
EPIC— Environmental Photographic Interpretation
EPNL— Effective Perceived Noise Level
EPRI— Electric Power Research Institute
EPTC— Extraction Procedure Toxicity
EQIP— Environmental Quality Incentives
ER— Ecosystem Restoration; Electrical
ERA— Economic Regulatory Agency
ERAMS— Environmental Radiation Ambient
ERC— Emergency Response Commission.
Emissions Reduction Credit, Environmental
ERCS— Emergency Response Cleanup Services
ERDA— Energy Research and Development
ERD&DAA— Environmental Research,
Development and Demonstration Authorization
ERL— Environmental Research Laboratory
ERNS— Emergency Response Notification
ERP— Enforcement Response Policy
ERT— Emergency Response Team
ERTAQ— ERT Air Quality Model
ES— Enforcement Strategy
ESA— Endangered Species Act. Environmentally
ESC— Endangered Species Committee
ESCA— Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical
ESCAP— Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific
ESECA— Energy Supply and Environmental
ESH— Environmental Safety and Health
ESP— Electrostatic Precipitators
ET— Emissions Trading
ETI— Environmental Technology Initiative
ETP— Emissions Trading Policy
ETS— Emissions Tracking System; Environmental
ETV— Environmental Technology Verification
EUP— End-Use Product; Experimental Use
EWCC— Environmental Workforce Coordinating
EXAMS— Exposure Analysis Modeling System
ExEx— Expected Exceedance
Ecological Entity— In
ecological risk assessment, a general term
referring to a species, a group of species,
an ecosystem function or characteristic, or
a specific habitat or biome.
Maintenance of ecosystem components and functions
for future generations.
Ecological Exposure— Exposure
of a non-human organism to a stressor.
Ecological Impact— The
effect that a man-caused or natural activity
has on living organisms and their non-living
A characteristic of an ecosystem that is related
to, or derived from, a measure of biotic or
abiotic variable, that can provide quantitative
information on ecological structure and function.
An indicator can contribute to a measure of
integrity and sustainability.
A living system exhibits integrity if, when
subjected to disturbance, it sustains and
organizes self-correcting ability to recover
toward a biomass end-state that is normal
for that system. End-states other than the
pristine or naturally whole may be accepted
as normal and good.
Ecological Risk Assessment—
The application of a formal framework, analytical
process, or model to estimate the effects
of human actions(s) on a natural resource
and to interpret the significance of those
effects in light of the uncertainties identified
in each component of the assessment process.
Such analysis includes initial hazard identification,
exposure and dose-response assessments, and
Ecology— The relationship
of living things to one another and their
environment, or the study of such relationships.
Economic Poisons— Chemicals
used to control pests and to defoliate cash
crops such as cotton.
Ecosphere— The “bio-bubble”
that contains life on earth, in surface waters,
and in the air.
Ecosystem— The interacting
system of a biological community and its non-living
Ecosystem Structure— Attributes
related to the instantaneous physical state
of an ecosystem; examples include species
population density, species richness or evenness,
and standing crop biomass.
Ecotone— A habitat created
by the juxtaposition of distinctly different
habitats; an edge habitat; or an ecological
zone or boundary where two or more ecosystems
or untreated—that flows out of a treatment
plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally
refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.
Effluent Guidelines— Technical
EPA documents which set effluent limitations
for given industries and pollutants.
Effluent Limitation— Restrictions
established by a state or EPA on quantities,
rates, and concentrations in wastewater discharges.
Ejector— A device used
to disperse a chemical solution into water
Electrodialysis— A process
that uses electrical current applied to permeable
membranes to remove minerals from water. Often
used to desalinize salty or brackish water.
Methods— Ways to measure subsurface
conductivity via low-frequency electromagnetic
(ESP)— A device that removes particles
from a gas stream (smoke) after combustion
occurs. The ESP imparts an electrical charge
to the particles, causing them to adhere to
metal plates inside the precipitator. Rapping
on the plates causes the particles to fall
into a hopper for disposal.
Eligible Costs— The construction
costs for wastewater treatment works upon
which EPA grants are based.
EMAP Data— Environmental
monitoring data collected under the auspices
of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Program. All EMAP data share the common attribute
of being of known quality, having been collected
in the context of explicit data quality objectives
(DQOs) and a consistent quality assurance
A situation created by an accidental release
or spill of hazardous chemicals that poses
a threat to the safety of workers, residents,
the environment, or property.
Provision in FIFRA under which EPA can grant
temporary exemption to a state or another
federal agency to allow the use of a pesticide
product not registered for that particular
use. Such actions involve unanticipated and/or
severe pest problems where there is not time
or interest by a manufacturer to register
the product for that use. (Registrants cannot
apply for such exemptions.)
Emergency Removal Action—
1. Steps take to remove contaminated materials
that pose imminent threats to local residents
(e.g. removal of leaking drums or the excavation
of explosive waste.) 2. The state record of
Emergency Response Values—
Concentrations of chemicals, published by
various groups, defining acceptable levels
for short-term exposures in emergencies.
Suspension of a pesticide product registration
due to an imminent hazard. The action immediately
halts distribution, sale, and sometimes actual
use of the pesticide involved.
Emission— Pollution discharged
into the atmosphere from smokestacks, other
vents, and surface areas of commercial or
industrial facilities; from residential chimneys;
and from motor vehicle, locomotive, or aircraft
Emission Cap— A limit
designed to prevent projected growth in emissions
from existing and future stationary sources
from eroding any mandated reductions. Generally,
such provisions require that any emission
growth from facilities under the restrictions
be offset by equivalent reductions at other
facilities under the same cap.
Emission Factor— The
relationship between the amount of pollution
produced and the amount of raw material processed.
For example, an emission factor for a blast
furnace making iron would be the number of
pounds of particulates per ton of raw materials.
Emission Inventory— A
listing, by source, of the amount of air pollutants
discharged into the atmosphere of a community;
used to establish emission standards.
Emission Standard— The
maximum amount of air polluting discharge
legally allowed from a single source, mobile
Emissions Trading— The
creation of surplus emission reductions at
certain stacks, vents or similar emissions
sources and the use of this surplus to meet
or redefine pollution requirements applicable
to other emissions sources. This allows one
source to increase emissions when another
source reduces them, maintaining an overall
constant emission level. Facilities that reduce
emissions substantially may “bank”
their “credits” or sell them to
other facilities or industries.
Emulsifier— A chemical
that aids in suspending one liquid in another.
Usually an organic chemical in an aqueous
Encapsulation— The treatment
of asbestos-containing material with a liquid
that covers the surface with a protective
coating or embeds fibers in an adhesive matrix
to prevent their release into the air.
Enclosure— Putting an
airtight, impermeable, permanent barrier around
asbestos-containing materials to prevent the
release of asbestos fibers into the air.
End User— Consumer of
products for the purpose of recycling. Excludes
products for re-use or combustion for energy
such as scrubbers on smokestacks and catalytic
convertors on automobile tailpipes that reduce
emissions of pollutants after they have formed.
End-use Product— A pesticide
formulation for field or other end use. The
label has instructions for use or application
to control pests or regulate plant growth.
The term excludes products used to formulate
other pesticide products.
Endangered Species— Animals,
birds, fish, plants, or other living organisms
threatened with extinction by anthropogenic
(man-caused) or other natural changes in their
environment. Requirements for declaring a
species endangered are contained in the Endangered
A study to determine the nature and extent
of contamination at a site on the National
Priorities List and the risks posed to public
health or the environment. EPA or the state
conducts the study when a legal action is
to be taken to direct potentially responsible
parties to clean up a site or pay for it.
An endangerment assessment supplements a remedial
Endrin— A pesticide toxic
to freshwater and marine aquatic life that
produces adverse health effects in domestic
Energy Management System—
A control system capable of monitoring environmental
and system loads and adjusting HVAC operations
accordingly in order to conserve energy while
Energy Recovery— Obtaining
energy from waste through a variety of processes
Conditions or limitations in permits issued
under the Clean Water Act Section 402 or 404
that, if violated, could result in the issuance
of a compliance order or initiation of a civil
or criminal action under federal or applicable
state laws. If a permit has not been issued,
the term includes any requirement which, in
the Regional Administrator’s judgement,
would be included in the permit when issued.
Where no permit applies, the term includes
any requirement which the RA determines is
necessary for the best practical waste treatment
technology to meet applicable criteria.
Enforcement— EPA, state,
or local legal actions to obtain compliance
with environmental laws, rules, regulations,
or agreements and/or obtain penalties or criminal
sanctions for violations. Enforcement procedures
may vary, depending on the requirements of
different environmental laws and related implementing
regulations. Under CERCLA, for example, EPA
will seek to require potentially responsible
parties to clean up a Superfund site, or pay
for the cleanup, whereas under the Clean Air
Act the Agency may invoke sanctions against
cities failing to meet ambient air quality
standards that could prevent certain types
of construction or federal funding. In other
situations, if investigations by EPA and state
agencies uncover willful violations, criminal
trials and penalties are sought.
Enforcement Decision Document
(EDD)— A document that provides an explanation
to the public of EPA’s selection of
the cleanup alternative at enforcement sites
on the National Priorities List. Similar to
a Record of Decision.
Method of managing environmental and health
risks by placing a barrier between the contamination
and the rest of the site, thus limiting exposure
Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance
(I&M)— An improved automobile inspection
and maintenance program—aimed at reducing
automobile emissions---that contains, at a
minimum, more vehicle types and model years,
tighter inspection, and better management
practices. It may also include annual computerized
or centralized inspections, under-the-hood
inspection—for signs of tampering with
pollution control equipment—and increased
repair waiver cost.
Enrichment— The addition
of nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon
compounds) from sewage effluent or agricultural
runoff to surface water, greatly increases
the growth potential for algae and other aquatic
Entrain— To trap bubbles
in water either mechanically through turbulence
or chemically through a reaction.
Environment— The sum of
all external conditions affecting the life,
development and survival of an organism.
An environmental analysis prepared pursuant
to the National Environmental Policy Act to
determine whether a federal action would significantly
affect the environment and thus require a
more detailed environmental impact statement.
Environmental Audit— An
independent assessment of the current status
of a party’s compliance with applicable
environmental requirements or of a party’s
environmental compliance policies, practices,
The potential for adverse effects on living
organisms associated with pollution of the
environment by effluents, emissions, wastes,
or accidental chemical releases; energy use;
or the depletion of natural resources.
Equal protection from environmental hazards
for individuals, groups, or communities regardless
of race, ethnicity, or economic status. This
applies to the development, implementation,
and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations,
and policies, and implies that no population
of people should be forced to shoulder a disproportionate
share of negative environmental impacts of
pollution or environmental hazard due to a
lack of political or economic strength levels.
Human exposure to pollutants originating from
facility emissions. Threshold levels are not
necessarily surpassed, but low-level chronic
pollutant exposure is one of the most common
forms of environmental exposure.
Environmental Fate— The
destiny of a chemical or biological pollutant
after release into the environment.
Environmental Fate Data—
Data that characterize a pesticide’s
fate in the ecosystem, considering factors
that foster its degradation (light, water,
microbes), pathways and resultant products.
Environmental Impact Statement—
A document required of federal agencies by
the National Environmental Policy Act for
major projects or legislative proposals significantly
affecting the environment. A tool for decision
making, it describes the positive and negative
effects of the undertaking and cites alternative
A measurement, statistic or value that provides
a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects
of environmental management programs or of
the state or condition of the environment.
Environmental Lien— A
charge, security, or encumbrance on a property’s
title to secure payment of cost or debt arising
from response actions, cleanup, or other remediation
of hazardous substances or petroleum products.
A major environmental category that surrounds
or contacts humans, animals, plants, and other
organisms (e.g. surface water, ground water,
soil or air) and through which chemicals or
Environmental Monitoring for
Public Access and Community Tracking—
Joint EPA, NOAA, and USGS program to provide
timely and effective communication of environmental
data and information through improved and
updated technology solutions that support
timely environmental monitoring reporting,
interpreting, and use of the information for
the benefit of the public.
Environmental Response Team—
EPA experts located in Edison, N.J., and Cincinnati,
OH, who can provide around-the-clock technical
assistance to EPA regional offices and states
during all types of hazardous waste site emergencies
and spills of hazardous substances.
Environmental Site Assessment—
The process of determining whether contamination
is present on a parcel of real property.
Long-term maintenance of ecosystem components
and functions for future generations.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke—
Mixture of smoke from the burning end of a
cigarette, pipe, or cigar and smoke exhaled
by the smoker.
Epidemiology— Study of
the distribution of disease, or other health-related
states and events in human populations, as
related to age, sex, occupation, ethnicity,
and economic status in order to identify and
alleviate health problems and promote better
Epilimnion— Upper waters
of a thermally stratified lake subject to
An air pollution incident in a given area
caused by a concentration of atmospheric pollutants
under meteorological conditions that may result
in a significant increase in illnesses or
deaths. May also describe water pollution
events or hazardous material spills.
Equilibrium— In relation
to radiation, the state at which the radioactivity
of consecutive elements within a radioactive
series is neither increasing nor decreasing.
Equivalent Method— Any
method of sampling and analyzing for air pollution
which has been demonstrated to the EPA Administrator’s
satisfaction to be, under specific conditions,
an acceptable alternative to normally used
Erosion— The wearing away
of land surface by wind or water, intensified
by land-clearing practices related to farming,
residential or industrial development, road
building, or logging.
Established Treatment Technologies—
Technologies for which cost and performance
data are readily available.
Estimated Environmental Concentration—
The estimated pesticide concentration in an
Estuary— Region of interaction
between rivers and near-shore ocean waters,
where tidal action and river flow mix fresh
and salt water. Such areas include bays, mouths
of rivers, salt marshes, and lagoons. These
brackish water ecosystems shelter and feed
marine life, birds, and wildlife.
Ethanol— An alternative
automotive fuel derived from grain and corn;
usually blended with gasoline to form gasohol.
Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)—
A chemical used as an agricultural fumigant
and in certain industrial processes. Extremely
toxic and found to be a carcinogen in laboratory
animals, EDB has been banned for most agricultural
uses in the United States.
Eutrophic Lakes— Shallow,
murky bodies of water with concentrations
of plant nutrients causing excessive production
Eutrophication— The slow
aging process during which a lake, estuary,
or bay evolves into a bog or marsh and eventually
disappears. During the later stages of eutrophication
the water body is choked by abundant plant
life due to higher levels of nutritive compounds
such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Human activities
can accelerate the process.
Evaporation Ponds— Areas
where sewage sludge is dumped and dried.
loss of water from the soil both by evaporation
and by transpiration from the plants growing
in the soil.
of the pollutant levels permitted by environmental
Exclusion— In the asbestos
program, one of several situations that permit
a Local Education Agency (LEA) to delete one
or more of the items required by the Asbestos
Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA); e.g.
records of previous asbestos sample collection
and analysis may be used by the accredited
inspector in lieu of AHERA bulk sampling.
Zoning that excludes classes of persons or
businesses from a particular neighborhood
Exempt Solvent— Specific
organic compounds not subject to requirements
of regulation because they are deemed by EPA
to be of negligible photochemical reactivity.
Exempted Aquifer— Underground
bodies of water defined in the Underground
Injection Control program as aquifers that
are potential sources of drinking water though
not being used as such, and thus exempted
from regulations barring underground injection
Exemption— A state (with
primacy) may exempt a public water system
from a requirement involving a Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL), treatment technique, or both,
if the system cannot comply due to compelling
economic or other factors, or because the
system was in operation before the requirement
or MCL was instituted; and the exemption will
not create a public health risk.
Exotic Species— A species
that is not indigenous to a region.
Experimental Use Permit—
Obtained by manufacturers for testing new
pesticides or uses thereof whenever they conduct
experimental field studies to support registration
on 10 acres or more of land or one acre or
more of water.
Experimental Use Permit—
A permit granted by EPA that allows a producer
to conduct tests of a new pesticide, product
and/or use outside the laboratory. The testing
is usually done on ten or more acres of land
or water surface.
Explosive Limits— The
amounts of vapor in the air that form explosive
mixtures; limits are expressed as lower and
upper limits and give the range of vapor concentrations
in air that will explode if an ignition source
Exports — In solid waste
program, municipal solid waste and recyclables
transported outside the state or locality
where they originated.
Exposure— The amount of
radiation or pollutant present in a given
environment that represents a potential health
threat to living organisms.
Identifying the pathways by which toxicants
may reach individuals, estimating how much
of a chemical an individual is likely to be
exposed to, and estimating the number likely
to be exposed.
The concentration of a chemical or other pollutant
representing a health threat in a given environment.
Exposure Indicator— A
characteristic of the environment measured
to provide evidence of the occurrence or magnitude
of a response indicator’s exposure to
a chemical or biological stress.
Exposure Level— The amount
(concentration) of a chemical at the absorptive
surfaces of an organism.
Exposure Pathway— The
path from sources of pollutants via, soil,
water, or food to man and other species or
Exposure Route— The way
a chemical or pollutant enters an organism
after contact; i.e. by ingestion, inhalation,
or dermal absorption.
The relationship between exposure level and
the incidence of adverse effects.
Extraction Procedure (EP Toxic)—
Determining toxicity by a procedure which
simulates leaching; if a certain concentration
of a toxic substance can be leached from a
waste, that waste is considered hazardous,
Extraction Well— A discharge
well used to remove groundwater or air.
Extremely Hazardous Substances—
Any of 406 chemicals identified by EPA as
toxic, and listed under SARA Title III. The
list is subject to periodic revision.