CA— Citizen Act. Competition
Advocate. Cooperative Agreements. Corrective
CAA— Clean Air Act; Compliance Assurance
CAAA— Clean Air Act Amendments
CAER— Community Awareness and Emergency
CAFE— Corporate Average Fuel Economy
CAFO— Concentrated Animal Feedlot; Consent
CAG— Carcinogenic Assessment Group
CAIR— Comprehensive Assessment of Information
CALINE— California Line Source Model
CAM— Compliance Assurance Monitoring
rule; Compliance Assurance Monitoring
CAMP— Continuous Air Monitoring Program
CAN— Common Account Number
CAO— Corrective Action Order
CAP— Corrective Action Plan. Cost Allocation
Procedure. Criteria Air Pollutant
CAPMoN— Canadian Air and Precipitation
CAR— Corrective Action Report
CAS— Center for Automotive Safety; Chemical
CASAC— Clean Air Scientific Advisory
CASLP— Conference on Alternative State
and Local Practices
CASTNet— Clean Air Status and Trends
CATS— Corrective Action Tracking System
CAU— Carbon Adsorption Unit; Command
CB— Continuous Bubbler
CBA— Chesapeake Bay Agreement. Cost
CBD— Central Business District
CBEP— Community Based Environmental
CBI— Compliance Biomonitoring Inspection;
Confidential Business Information
CBOD— Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen
CBP— Chesapeake Bay Program; County
CCA— Competition in Contracting Act
CCAA— Canadian Clean Air Act
CCAP— Center for Clean Air Policy; Climate
Change Action Plan
CCEA— Conventional Combustion Environmental
CCHW— Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous
CCID— Confidential Chemicals Identification
CCMS/NATO— Committee on Challenges of
a Modern Society/North Atlantic Treaty Organization
CCP— Composite Correction Plan
CC/RTS—Chemical Collection/ Request
CCTP— Clean Coal Technology Program
CD— Climatological Data
CDB— Consolidated Data Base
CDBA— Central Data Base Administrator
CDBG— Community Development Block Grant
CDD— Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
CDF— Chlorinated dibenzofuran
CDHS— Comprehensive Data Handling System
CDI— Case Development Inspection
CDM— Climatological Dispersion Model;
Comprehensive Data Management
CDMQC— Climatological Dispersion Model
with Calibration and Source Contribution
CDNS— Climatological Data National Summary
CDP— Census Designated Places
CDS— Compliance Data System
CE— Categorical Exclusion. Conditionally
CEA— Cooperative Enforcement Agreement;
Cost and Economic Assessment
CEAT— Contractor Evidence Audit Team
CEARC— Canadian Environmental Assessment
CEB— Chemical Element Balance
CEC— Commission for Environmental Cooperation
CECATS— CSB Existing Chemicals Assessment
CEE— Center for Environmental Education
CEEM— Center for Energy and Environmental
CEI— Compliance Evaluation Inspection
CELRF— Canadian Environmental Law Research
CEM— Continuous Emission Monitoring
CEMS— Continuous Emission Monitoring
CEPA— Canadian Environmental Protection
CEPP— Chemical Emergency Preparedness
CEQ— Council on Environmental Quality
CERCLA— Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CERCLIS— Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation, and Liability Information
CERT— Certificate of Eligibility
CESQG— Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity
CEST— Community Environmental Service
CF— Conservation Foundation
CFR— Code of Federal Regulations
CHABA— Committee on Hearing and Bio-Acoustics
CHAMP— Community Health Air Monitoring
CHEMNET— Chemical Industry Emergency
Mutual Aid Network
CHESS— Community Health and Environmental
CHIP— Chemical Hazard Information Profiles
CI— Compression Ignition. Confidence
CIAQ— Council on Indoor Air Quality
CIBL— Convective Internal Boundary Layer
CICA— Competition in Contracting Act
CICIS— Chemicals in Commerce Information
CIDRS— Cascade Impactor Data Reduction
CIMI— Committee on Integrity and Management
CIS— Chemical Information System. Contracts
CKD— Cement Kiln Dust
CKRC— Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition
CLC— Capacity Limiting Constituents
CLEANS— Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation
and Assessment of Toxic Substances
CLEVER— Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation
and Validation of Epidemiologic Research
CLF— Conservation Law Foundation
CLI— Consumer Labelling Initiative
CLIPS— Chemical List Index and Processing
CLP— Contract Laboratory Program
CM— Corrective Measure
CMA— Chemical Manufacturers Association
CMB— Chemical Mass Balance
CME— Comprehensive Monitoring Evaluation
CMEL— Comprehensive Monitoring Evaluation
CMEP— Critical Mass Energy Project
CNG—Compressedd Natural Gas
COCO— Contractor-Owned/ Contractor-Operated
COD— Chemical Oxygen Demand
COH— Coefficient Of Haze
CPDA— Chemical Producers and Distributor
CPF— Carcinogenic Potency Factor
CPO— Certified Project Officer
CQA— Construction Quality Assurance
CR— Continuous Radon Monitoring
CROP— Consolidated Rules of Practice
CRP— Child-Resistant Packaging; Conservation
CRR— Center for Renewable Resources
CRSTER— Single Source Dispersion Model
CSCT— Committee for Site Characterization
CSGWPP— Comprehensive State Ground Water
CSI— Common Sense Initiative; Compliance
CSIN— Chemical Substances Information
CSMA— Chemical Specialties Manufacturers
CSO— Combined Sewer Overflow
CSPA— Council of State Planning Agencies
CSRL— Center for the Study of Responsive
CTARC— Chemical Testing and Assessment
CTG— Control Techniques Guidelines
CTSA— Cleaner TechnologiesSubstitutess
CV— Chemical Vocabulary
CVS— Constant Volume Sampler
CW— Continuous working-level monitoring
CWA— Clean Water Act (aka FWPCA)
CWAP— Clean Water Action Project
CWTC— Chemical Waste Transportation
CZMA— Coastal Zone Management Act
CZARA— Coastal Zone Management Act Reauthorization
Cadmium (Cd)— A heavy
metal that accumulates in the environment.
Cancellation— Refers to
Section 6 (b) of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) which
authorizes cancellation of a pesticide registration
if unreasonable adverse effects to the environment
and public health develop when a product is
used according to widespread and commonly
recognized practice, or if its labeling or
other material required to be submitted does
not comply with FIFRA provisions.
Cap— A layer of clay,
or other impermeable material installed over
the top of a closed landfill to prevent entry
of rainwater and minimize leachate.
Capacity Assurance Plan—
A statewide plan which supports a state’s
ability to manage the hazardous waste generated
within its boundaries over a twenty year period.
Capillary Action— Movement
of water through very small spaces due to
molecular forces called capillary forces.
Capillary Fringe— The
porous material just above the water table
which may hold water by capillarity (a property
of surface tension that draws water upwards)
in the smaller void spaces.
Capillary Fringe— The
zone above he water table within which the
porous medium is saturated by water under
less than atmospheric pressure.
Capture Efficiency— The
fraction of organic vapors generated by a
process that are directed to an abatement
or recovery device.
Carbon Absorber— An add-on
control device that uses activated carbon
to absorb volatile organic compounds from
a gas stream. (The VOCs are later recovered
from the carbon.)
Carbon Adsorption— A treatment
system that removes contaminants from ground
water or surface water by forcing it through
tanks containing activated carbon treated
to attract the contaminants.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)—
A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced
by incomplete fossil fuel combustion.
Carbon Tetrachloride (CC14)—
Compound consisting of one carbon atom ad
four chlorine atoms, once widely used as a
industrial raw material, as a solvent, and
in the production of CFCs. Use as a solvent
ended when it was discovered to be carcinogenic.
in which the iron is bound to carbon monoxide(CO)
instead of oxygen.
Carcinogen— Any substance
that can cause or aggravate cancer.
Carrier— 1.The inert liquid
or solid material in a pesticide product that
serves as a delivery vehicle for the active
ingredient. Carriers do not have toxic properties
of their own. 2. Any material or system that
can facilitate the movement of a pollutant
into the body or cells.
Carrying Capacity— 1.
In recreation management, the amount of use
a recreation area can sustain without loss
of quality. 2. In wildlife management, the
maximum number of animals an area can support
during a given period.
CAS Registration Number—
A number assigned by the Chemical Abstract
Service to identify a chemical.
Case Study— A brief fact
sheet providing risk, cost, and performance
information on alternative methods and other
pollution prevention ideas, compliance initiatives,
voluntary efforts, etc.
Cask— A thick-walled container
(usually lead) used to transport radioactive
material. Also called a coffin.
Catalyst— A substance
that changes the speed or yield of a chemical
reaction without being consumed or chemically
changed by the chemical reaction.
Catalytic Converter— An
air pollution abatement device that removes
pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, either
by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and
water or reducing them to nitrogen.
A control device that oxidizes volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) by using a catalyst to promote
the combustion process. Catalytic incinerators
require lower temperatures than conventional
thermal incinerators, thus saving fuel and
A class of actions which either individually
or cumulatively would not have a significant
effect on the human environment and therefore
would not require preparation of an environmental
assessment or environmental impact statement
under the National Environmental Policy Act
Categorical Pretreatment Standard—
A technology-based effluent limitation for
an industrial facility discharging into a
municipal sewer system. Analogous in stringency
to Best Availability Technology (BAT) for
Cathodic Protection— A
technique to prevent corrosion of a metal
surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical
Cavitation— The formation
and collapse of gas pockets or bubbles on
the blade of an impeller or the gate of a
valve; collapse of these pockets or bubbles
drives water with such force that it can cause
pitting of the gate or valve surface.
Cells— 1. In solid waste
disposal, holes where waste is dumped, compacted,
and covered with layers of dirt on a daily
basis. 2. The smallest structural part of
living matter capable of functioning as an
packed and nonfibrous friable materials.
Central Collection Point—
Location were a generator of regulated medical
waste consolidates wastes originally generated
at various locations in his facility. The
wastes are gathered together for treatment
on-site or for transportation elsewhere for
treatment and/or disposal. This term could
also apply to community hazardous waste collections,
industrial and other waste management systems.
A mechanical system using centrifugal force
to remove aerosols from a gas stream or to
remove water from sludge.
and deepening streams so water will move faster,
a marsh-drainage tactic that can interfere
with waste assimilation capacity, disturb
fish and wildlife habitats, and aggravate
Characteristic— Any one
of the four categories used in defining hazardous
waste— ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity,
Characterization of Ecological
Effects— Part of ecological risk assessment
that evaluates ability of a stressor to cause
adverse effects under given circumstances.
Characterization of Exposure—
Portion of an ecological risk assessment that
evaluates interaction of a stressor with one
or more ecological entities.
Check-Valve Tubing Pump—
Water sampling tool also referred to as a
Chemical Case— For purposes
of review and regulation, the grouping of
chemically similar pesticide active ingredients
(e.g. salts and esters of the same chemical)
into chemical cases.
Chemical Compound— A distinct
and pure substance formed by the union or
two or more elements in definite proportion
Chemical Element— A fundamental
substance comprising one kind of atom; the
simplest form of matter.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)—
A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize
all compounds, both organic and inorganic,
Chemical Stressors— Chemicals
released to the environment through industrial
waste, auto emissions, pesticides, and other
human activity that can cause illnesses and
even death in plants and animals.
Chemical Treatment— Any
one of a variety of technologies that use
chemicals or a variety of chemical processes
to treat waste.
Chemnet— Mutual aid network
of chemical shippers and contractors that
assigns a contracted emergency response company
to provide technical support if a representative
of the firm whose chemicals are involved in
an incident is not readily available.
Chemosterilant— A chemical
that controls pests by preventing reproduction.
Chemtrec— The industry-sponsored
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center;
provides information and/or emergency assistance
to emergency responders.
Child Resistant Packaging (CRP)—
Packaging that protects children or adults
from injury or illness resulting from accidental
contact with or ingestion of residential pesticides
that meet or exceed specific toxicity levels.
Required by FIFRA regulations. Term is also
used for protective packaging of medicines.
Chiller— A device that
generates a cold liquid that is circulated
through an air-handling unit’s cooling
coil to cool the air supplied to the building.
Chilling Effect— The lowering
of the Earth’s temperature because of
increased particles in the air blocking the
Chisel Plowing— Preparing
croplands by using a special implement that
avoids complete inversion of the soil as in
conventional plowing. Chisel plowing can leave
a protective cover or crops residues on the
soil surface to help prevent erosion and improve
1. Chemicals containing only chlorine, carbon,
and hydrogen. These include a class of persistent,
broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in
the environment and accumulate in the food
chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin,
heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, Mirex,
hexachloride, and toxaphene. Other examples
include TCE, used as an industrial solvent.
2. Any chlorinated organic compounds including
chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane,
Chlorinated Solvent— An
organic solvent containing chlorine atoms(e.g.
methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloromethane).
Uses of chlorinated solvents are include aerosol
spray containers, in highway paint, and dry
Chlorination— The application
of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or
industrial waste to disinfect or to oxidize
Chlorinator— A device
that adds chlorine, in gas or liquid form,
to water or sewage to kill infectious bacteria.
That part of a water treatment plant where
effluent is disinfected by chlorine.
A family of inert, nontoxic, and easily liquefied
chemicals used in refrigeration, air conditioning,
packaging, insulation, or as solvents and
aerosol propellants. Because CFCs are not
destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift
into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine
components destroy ozone.
Chlorophenoxy— A class
of herbicides that may be found in domestic
water supplies and cause adverse health effects.
of normally green plant parts caused by disease,
lack of nutrients, or various air pollutants.
Cholinesterase— An enzyme
found in animals that regulates nerve impulses
by the inhibition of acetylcholine. Cholinesterase
inhibition is associated with a variety of
acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred
vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
Chronic Effect— An adverse
effect on a human or animal in which symptoms
recur frequently or develop slowly over a
long period of time.
Chronic Exposure— Multiple
exposures occurring over an extended period
of time or over a significant fraction of
an animal’s or human’s lifetime
(Usually seven years to a lifetime.)
Chronic Toxicity— The
capacity of a substance to cause long-term
poisonous health effects in humans, animals,
fish, and other organisms.
Circle of Influence— The
circular outer edge of a depression produced
in the water table by the pumping of water
from a well.
Cistern— Small tank or
storage facility used to store water for a
home or farm; often used to store rain water.
action that occurs during wastewater treatment
when solids settle out. This is often aided
by centrifugal action and chemically induced
coagulation in wastewater.
Clarifier— A tank in which
solids settle to the bottom and are subsequently
removed as sludge.
Class I Substance— One
of several groups of chemicals with an ozone
depletion potential of 0.2 or higher, including
CFCS, Halons, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Methyl
Chloroform (listed in the Clean Air Act),
and HBFCs and Ethyl Bromide (added by EPA
Class II Substance— A
substance with an ozone depletion potential
of less than 0.2. All HCFCs are currently
included in this classification.
Clay Soil— Soil material
containing more than 40 percent clay, less
than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent
Clean Coal Technology—
Any technology not in widespread use prior
to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This
Act will achieve significant reductions in
pollutants associated with the burning of
Clean Fuels— Blends or
substitutes for gasoline fuels, including
compressed natural gas, methanol, ethanol,
and liquified petroleum gas.
Cleaner Technologies Substitutes
Assessment— A document that systematically
evaluates the relative risk, performance,
and cost trade-offs of technological alternatives;
serves as a repository for all the technical
data (including methodology and results) developed
by a DfE or other pollution prevention or
Cleanup— Actions taken
to deal with a release or threat of release
of a hazardous substance that could affect
humans and/or the environment. The term “cleanup”
is sometimes used interchangeably with the
terms remedial action, removal action, response
action, or corrective action.
Clear Cut— Harvesting
all the trees in one area at one time, a practice
that can encourage fast rainfall or snowmelt
runoff, erosion, sedimentation of streams
and lakes, and flooding, and destroys vital
Clear Well— A reservoir
for storing filtered water of sufficient quantity
to prevent the need to vary the filtration
rate with variations in demand. Also used
to provide chlorine contact time for disinfection.
Climate Change (also referred
to as ‘global climate change’)—
The term ‘climate change’ is sometimes
used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency,
but because the Earth’s climate is never
static, the term is more properly used to
imply a significant change from one climatic
condition to another. In some cases, ‘climate
change’ has been used synonymously with
the term, ‘global warming’; scientists
however, tend to use the term in the wider
sense to also include natural changes in climate.
Cloning— In biotechnology,
obtaining a group of genetically identical
cells from a single cell; making identical
copies of a gene.
Reclaiming or reusing wastewater for non-potable
purposes in an enclosed process.
Closure— The procedure
a landfill operator must follow when a landfill
reaches its legal capacity for solid ceasing
acceptance of solid waste and placing a cap
on the landfill site.
Co-fire— Burning of two
fuels in the same combustion unit; e.g., coal
and natural gas, or oil and coal.
of particles in wastewater to settle out impurities,
often induced by chemicals such as lime, alum,
and iron salts.
Coal Cleaning Technology—
A precombustion process by which coal is physically
or chemically treated to remove some of its
sulfur so as to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions.
Coal Gasification— Conversion
of coal to a gaseous product by one of several
Coastal Zone— Lands and
waters adjacent to the coast that exert an
influence on the uses of the sea and its ecology,
or whose uses and ecology are affected by
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR)— Document that codifies all rules
of the executive departments and agencies
of the federal government. It is divided into
fifty volumes, known as titles. Title 40 of
the CFR (referenced as 40 CFR) lists all environmental
Coefficient of Haze (COH)—
A measurement of visibility interference in
Cogeneration— The consecutive
generation of useful thermal and electric
energy from the same fuel source.
Coke Oven— An industrial
process which converts coal into coke, one
of the basic materials used in blast furnaces
for the conversion of iron ore into iron.
Cold Temperature CO— A
standard for automobile emissions of carbon
monoxide (CO) emissions to be met at a low
temperature (i.e. 20 degrees Fahrenheit).
Conventional automobile catalytic converters
are not efficient in cold weather until they
Coliform Index— A rating
of the purity of water based on a count of
Coliform Organism— Microorganisms
found in the intestinal tract of humans and
animals. Their presence in water indicates
fecal pollution and potentially adverse contamination
Collector— Public or private
hauler that collects nonhazardous waste and
recyclable materials from residential, commercial,
institutional and industrial sources.
Collector Sewers— Pipes
used to collect and carry wastewater from
individual sources to an interceptor sewer
that will carry it to a treatment facility.
Colloids— Very small,
finely divided solids (that do not dissolve)
that remain dispersed in a liquid for a long
time due to their small size and electrical
Combined Sewer Overflows—
Discharge of a mixture of storm water and
domestic waste when the flow capacity of a
sewer system is exceeded during rainstorms.
Combined Sewers— A sewer
system that carries both sewage and storm-water
runoff. Normally, its entire flow goes to
a waste treatment plant, but during a heavy
storm, the volume of water may be so great
as to cause overflows of untreated mixtures
of storm water and sewage into receiving waters.
Storm-water runoff may also carry toxic chemicals
from industrial areas or streets into the
Combustion— 1. Burning,
or rapid oxidation, accompanied by release
of energy in the form of heat and light. 2.
Refers to controlled burning of waste, in
which heat chemically alters organic compounds,
converting into stable inorganics such as
carbon dioxide and water.
Combustion Chamber— The
actual compartment where waste is burned in
Combustion Product— Substance
produced during the burning or oxidation of
Command Post— Facility
located at a safe distance upwind from an
accident site, where the on-scene coordinator,
responders, and technical representatives
make response decisions, deploy manpower and
equipment, maintain liaison with news media,
and handle communications.
Specific requirements prescribing how to comply
with specific standards defining acceptable
levels of pollution.
Comment Period— Time provided
for the public to review and comment on a
proposed EPA action or rulemaking after publication
in the Federal Register.
Commercial Waste— All
solid waste emanating from business establishments
such as stores, markets, office buildings,
restaurants, shopping centers, and theaters.
Commercial Waste Management
Facility— A treatment, storage, disposal,
or transfer facility which accepts waste from
a variety of sources, as compared to a private
facility which normally manages a limited
waste stream generated by its own operations.
Mixed recyclables that are collected together.
Comminuter— A machine
that shreds or pulverizes solids to make waste
shredding or pulverizing of waste. Used in
both solid waste management and wastewater
Common Sense Initiative—
Voluntary program to simplify environmental
regulation to achieve cleaner, cheaper, smarter
results, starting with six major industry
Community— In ecology,
an assemblage of populations of different
species within a specified location in space
and time. Sometimes, a particular subgrouping
may be specified, such as the fish community
in a lake or the soil arthropod community
in a forest.
Community Relations— The
EPA effort to establish two-way communication
with the public to create understanding of
EPA programs and related actions, to ensure
public input into decision-making processes
related to affected communities, and to make
certain that the Agency is aware of and responsive
to public concerns. Specific community relations
activities are required in relation to Superfund
Community Water System—
A public water system which serves at least
15 service connections used by year-round
residents or regularly serves at least 25
Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)—
Small fluorescent lamps used as more efficient
alternatives to incandescent lighting. Also
called PL, CFL, Twin-Tube, or BIAX lamps.
of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and
Comparative Risk Assessment—
Process that generally uses the judgement
of experts to predict effects and set priorities
among a wide range of environmental problems.
Complete Treatment— A
method of treating water that consists of
the addition of coagulant chemicals, flash
mixing, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation,
and filtration. Also called conventional filtration.
Compliance Coal— Any coal
that emits less than 1.2 pounds of sulfur
dioxide per million Btu when burned. Also
known as low sulfur coal.
Compliance Coating— A
coating whose volatile organic compound content
does not exceed that allowed by regulation.
Compliance Cycle— The
9-year calendar year cycle, beginning January
1, 1993, during which public water systems
must monitor. Each cycle consists of three
3-year compliance periods.
Collection and evaluation of data, including
self-monitoring reports, and verification
to show whether pollutant concentrations and
loads contained in permitted discharges are
in compliance with the limits and conditions
specified in the permit.
Compliance Schedule— A
negotiated agreement between a pollution source
and a government agency that specifies dates
and procedures by which a source will reduce
emissions and, thereby, comply with a regulation.
Composite Sample— A series
of water samples taken over a given period
of time and weighted by flow rate.
Compost— The relatively
stable humus material that is produced from
a composting process in which bacteria in
soil mixed with garbage and degradable trash
break down the mixture into organic fertilizer.
Composting— The controlled
biological decomposition of organic material
in the presence of air to form a humus-like
material. Controlled methods of composting
include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating
the materials by dropping them through a vertical
series of aerated chambers, or placing the
compost in piles out in the open air and mixing
it or turning it periodically.
1. An offsite facility where the organic component
of municipal solid waste is decomposed under
controlled conditions; 2.an aerobic process
in which organic materials are ground or shredded
and then decomposed to humus in windrow piles
or in mechanical digesters, drums, or similar
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)—
An alternative fuel for motor vehicles; considered
one of the cleanest because of low hydrocarbon
emissions and its vapors are relatively non-ozone
producing. However, vehicles fueled with CNG
do emit a significant quantity of nitrogen
Concentration— The relative
amount of a substance mixed with another substance.
An example is five ppm of carbon monoxide
in air or 1 mg/l of iron in water.
Condensate— 1.Liquid formed
when warm landfill gas cools as it travels
through a collection system. 2. Water created
by cooling steam or water vapor.
Condensate Return System—
System that returns the heated water condensing
within steam piping to the boiler and thus
Under special circumstances, the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) permits
registration of pesticide products that is
“conditional” upon the submission
of additional data. These special circumstances
include a finding by the EPA Administrator
that a new product or use of an existing pesticide
will not significantly increase the risk of
unreasonable adverse effects. A product containing
a new (previously unregistered) active ingredient
may be conditionally registered only if the
Administrator finds that such conditional
registration is in the public interest, that
a reasonable time for conducting the additional
studies has not elapsed, and the use of the
pesticide for the period of conditional registration
will not present an unreasonable risk.
Conditionally Exempt Generators
(CE)— Persons or enterprises which produce
less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per
month. Exempt from most regulation, they are
required merely to determine whether their
waste is hazardous, notify appropriate state
or local agencies, and ship it by an authorized
transporter to a permitted facility for proper
Conductance— A rapid method
of estimating the dissolved solids content
of water supply by determining the capacity
of a water sample to carry an electrical current.
Conductivity is a measure of the ability of
a solution to carry and electrical current.
Conductivity— A measure
of the ability of a solution to carry an electrical
Cone of Depression— A
depression in the water table that develops
around a pumped well.
Cone of Influence— The
depression, roughly conical in shape, produced
in a water table by the pumping of water from
Cone Penterometer Testing (CPT)—
A direct push system used to measure lithology
based on soil penetration resistance. Sensors
in the tip of the cone of the DP rod measure
tip resistance and side-wall friction, transmitting
electrical signals to digital processing equipment
on the ground surface.
Confidential Business Information
(CBI)— Material that contains trade
secrets or commercial or financial information
that has been claimed as confidential by its
source (e.g. a pesticide or new chemical formulation
registrant). EPA has special procedures for
handling such information.
Confidential Statement of Formula
(CSF)— A list of the ingredients in
a new pesticide or chemical formulation. The
list is submitted at the time for application
for registration or change in formulation.
Confined Aquifer— An
aquifer in which ground water is confined
under pressure which is significantly greater
than atmospheric pressure.
Confluent Growth— A continuous
bacterial growth covering all or part of the
filtration area of a membrane filter in which
the bacteria colonies are not discrete.
Consent Decree— A legal
document, approved by a judge, that formalizes
an agreement reached between EPA and potentially
responsible parties (PRPs) through which PRPs
will conduct all or part of a cleanup action
at a Superfund site; cease or correct actions
or processes that are polluting the environment;
or otherwise comply with EPA initiated regulatory
enforcement actions to resolve the contamination
at the Superfund site involved. The consent
decree describes the actions PRPs will take
and may be subject to a public comment period.
and renewing, when possible, human and natural
resources. The use, protection, and improvement
of natural resources according to principles
that will ensure their highest economic or
Easement restricting a landowner to land uses
that that are compatible with long-term conservation
and environmental values.
Constituent(s) of Concern—
Specific chemicals that are identified for
evaluation in the site assessment process
Construction and Demolition
Waste— Waste building materials, dredging
materials, tree stumps, and rubble resulting
from construction, remodeling, repair, and
demolition of homes, commercial buildings
and other structures and pavements. May contain
lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances.
Construction Ban— If,
under the Clean Air Act, EPA disapproves an
area’s planning requirements for correcting
nonattainment, EPA can ban the construction
or modification of any major stationary source
of the pollutant for which the area is in
Consumptive Water Use—
Water removed from available supplies without
return to a water resources system, e.g. water
used in manufacturing, agriculture, and food
Contact Pesticide— A chemical
that kills pests when it touches them, instead
of by ingestion. Also, soil that contains
the minute skeletons of certain algae that
scratch and dehydrate waxy-coated insects.
Contaminant— Any physical,
chemical, biological, or radiological substance
or matter that has an adverse effect on air,
water, or soil.
into water, air, and soil of microorganisms,
chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater
in a concentration that makes the medium unfit
for its next intended use. Also applies to
surfaces of objects, buildings, and various
household and agricultural use products.
Contamination Source Inventory—
An inventory of contaminant sources within
delineated State Water-Protection Areas. Targets
likely sources for further investigation.
Contingency Plan— A document
setting out an organized, planned, and coordinated
course of action to be followed in case of
a fire, explosion, or other accident that
releases toxic chemicals, hazardous waste,
or radioactive materials that threaten human
health or the environment.
A routine release to the environment that
occurs without interruption, except for infrequent
shutdowns for maintenance, process changes,
Continuous Sample— A flow
of water, waste or other material from a particular
place in a plant to the location where samples
are collected for testing. May be used to
obtain grab or composite samples.
Contour Plowing— Soil
tilling method that follows the shape of the
land to discourage erosion.
Contour Strip Farming—
A kind of contour farming in which row crops
are planted in strips, between alternating
strips of close-growing, erosion-resistant
Contract Labs— Laboratories
under contract to EPA, which analyze samples
taken from waste, soil, air, and water or
carry out research projects.
Control Technique Guidelines
(CTG)— EPA documents designed to assist
state and local pollution authorities to achieve
and maintain air quality standards for certain
sources (e.g. organic emissions from solvent
metal cleaning known as degreasing) through
reasonably available control technologies
Controlled Reaction— A
chemical reaction under temperature and pressure
conditions maintained within safe limits to
produce a desired product or process.
Statutorily listed pollutants understood well
by scientists. These may be in the form of
organic waste, sediment, acid, bacteria, viruses,
nutrients, oil and grease, or heat.
Conventional Site Assessment—
Assessment in which most of the sample analysis
and interpretation of data is completed off-site;
process usually requires repeated mobilization
of equipment and staff in order to fully determine
the extent of contamination.
Systems that have been traditionally used
to collect municipal wastewater in gravity
sewers and convey it to a central primary
or secondary treatment plant prior to discharge
to surface waters.
Tillage operations considered standard for
a specific location and crop and that tend
to bury the crop residues; usually considered
as a base for determining the cost effectiveness
of control practices.
Conveyance Loss— Water
loss in pipes, channels, conduits, ditches
by leakage or evaporation.
Cooling Electricity Use—
Amount of electricity used to meet the building
Cooling Tower— A structure
that helps remove heat from water used as
a coolant; e.g., in electric power generating
Cooling Tower— Device
which dissipates the heat from water-cooled
systems by spraying the water through streams
of rapidly moving air.
An assistance agreement whereby EPA transfers
money, property, services or anything of value
to a state, university, non-profit, or not-for-profit
organization for the accomplishment of authorized
activities or tasks.
Core— The uranium-containing
heart of a nuclear reactor, where energy is
Core Program Cooperative Agreement—
An assistance agreement whereby EPA supports
states or tribal governments with funds to
help defray the cost of non-item-specific
administrative and training activities.
Corrective Action— EPA
can require treatment, storage and disposal
(TSDF) facilities handling hazardous waste
to undertake corrective actions to clean up
spills resulting from failure to follow hazardous
waste management procedures or other mistakes.
The process includes cleanup procedures designed
to guide TSDFs toward in spills.
Corrosion— The dissolution
and wearing away of metal caused by a chemical
reaction such as between water and the pipes,
chemicals touching a metal surface, or contact
between two metals.
Corrosive— A chemical
agent that reacts with the surface of a material
causing it to deteriorate or wear away.
A quantitative evaluation of the costs which
would have incurred by implementing an environmental
regulation versus the overall benefits to
society of the proposed action.
Cost Recovery— A legal
process by which potentially responsible parties
who contributed to contamination at a Superfund
site can be required to reimburse the Trust
Fund for money spent during any cleanup actions
by the federal government.
Cost Sharing— A publicly
financed program through which society, as
a beneficiary of environmental protection,
shares part of the cost of pollution control
with those who must actually install the controls.
In Superfund, for example, the government
may pay part of the cost of a cleanup action
with those responsible for the pollution paying
the major share.
An alternative control or corrective method
identified after analysis as being the best
available in terms of reliability, performance,
and cost. Although costs are one important
consideration, regulatory and compliance analysis
does not require EPA to choose the least expensive
alternative. For example, when selecting or
approving a method for cleaning up a Superfund
site, the Agency balances costs with the long-term
effectiveness of the methods proposed and
the potential danger posed by the site.
Cover Crop— A crop that
provides temporary protection for delicate
seedlings and/or provides a cover canopy for
seasonal soil protection and improvement between
normal crop production periods.
Cover Material— Soil used
to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary
Cradle-to-Grave or Manifest
System— A procedure in which hazardous
materials are identified and followed as they
are produced, treated, transported, and disposed
of by a series of permanent, linkable, descriptive
documents (e.g. manifests). Commonly referred
to as the cradle-to-grave system.
factors taken into account by EPA in setting
standards for various pollutants. These factors
are used to determine limits on allowable
concentration levels, and to limit the number
of violations per year. When issued by EPA,
the criteria provide guidance to the states
on how to establish their standards.
Criteria Pollutants— The
1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act required
EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards
for certain pollutants known to be hazardous
to human health. EPA has identified and set
standards to protect human health and welfare
for six pollutants— ozone, carbon monoxide,
total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide,
lead, and nitrogen oxide. The term, “criteria
pollutants” derives from the requirement
that EPA must describe the characteristics
and potential health and welfare effects of
these pollutants. It is on the basis of these
criteria that standards are set or revised.
Critical Effect— The first
adverse effect, or its known precursor, that
occurs as a dose rate increases. Designation
is based on evaluation of overall database.
Crop Consumptive Use—
The amount of water transpired during plant
growth plus what evaporated from the soil
surface and foliage in the crop area.
Crop Rotation— Planting
a succession of different crops on the same
land rea as opposed to planting the same crop
time after time.
Cross Contamination— The
movement of underground contaminants from
one level or area to another due to invasive
actual or potential connection between a drinking
water system and an unapproved water supply
or other source of contamination.
Crumb Rubber— Ground rubber
fragments the size of sand or silt used in
rubber or plastic products, or processed further
into reclaimed rubber or asphalt products.
Cryptosporidium— A protozoan
microbe associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis
in man. The disease can be transmitted through
ingestion of drinking water, person-to-person
contact, or other pathways, and can cause
acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting,
fever, and can be fatal as it was in the Milwaukee
Cubic Feet Per Minute (CFM)—
A measure of the volume of a substance flowing
through air within a fixed period of time.
With regard to indoor air, refers to the amount
of air, in cubic feet, that is exchanged with
outdoor air in a minute’s time; i.e.
the air exchange rate.
Cullet— Crushed glass.
Increasing rate at which water bodies “die”
by pollution from human activities.
Cultures and Stocks— Infectious
agents and associated biologicals including
cultures from medical and pathological laboratories;
cultures and stocks of infectious agents from
research and industrial laboratories; waste
from the production of biologicals; discarded
live and attenuated vaccines; and culture
dishes and devices used to transfer, inoculate,
and mix cultures.
Cumulative Ecological Risk Assessment—
Consideration of the total ecological risk
from multiple stressors to a given eco-zone.
Cumulative Exposure— The
sum of exposures of an organism to a pollutant
over a period of time.
Cumulative Working Level Months
(CWLM)— The sum of lifetime exposure
to radon working levels expressed in total
working level months.
Curb Stop— A water service
shutoff valve located in a water service pipe
near the curb and between the water main and
Curbside Collection— Method
of collecting recyclable materials at homes,
community districts or businesses.
Cutie-Pie— An instrument
used to measure radiation levels.
Cuttings— Spoils left
by conventional drilling with hollow stem
auger or rotary drilling equipment.
Cyclone Collector— A device
that uses centrifugal force to remove large
particles from polluted air.